UNITS

/л/ cup

— I m hungry. How much money’s in the hat?

⅝te∙,’

— ∖ thing.

— ∖. thing? Γm hungry too.

— Oh shut up! Everybody’s hungry.

1 Target sound /л/

∖35a a First practise the sound ∕ae∕

(see page 15). Listen and repeat.

,.35b B Put your tongue back a little to make

The short target sound /л/.

Listen and repeat.

A35c c Listen and repeat both sounds:

∕ae∕ and /л/.

Λ

Minimal pairs

Track

See the tracks on the road.

I T>0bS

Sound 2

∕λ∕

Cup

Where’s my cup?

R5

<4,

Hut

There’s a hut in the garden.

Ж

Truck

See the trucks on the road.

Bun

There’s a bun on it.

Bug

She’s got a bug.

Unde

My uncle was injured.

&

Sound 1

∕ae∕

Cap

Where’s my cap?

Hat

There’s a hat in the garden.

Ban

There’s a ban on it.

Bag

She’s got a bag.

Ankle

My ankle was injured.

Minimal pair words

A36a a Listen and repeat the words.

A36b B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For ∕se∕ (sound 1) or 2 for /л/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 2,1,2, 1,1

Minimal pair sentences

A37a C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

A37b d Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕ae∕ (sound 1) or 2 for /л/ (sound 2).

A37a e Sentence stress

Listen to the pairs of sentences again and match them with the sentence stress patterns below. The big circles are the strong syllables and the small circles are the weak syllables.

EXAMPLE ooθ (Pair 1) Where’s my Cap? ∕ Where’s my Cup? a) oooθ b) ooθoo c) ooθooθ d) ooθooθo e) oθooθo Notice that if we put too many strong stresses in a sentence, we may sound angry, especially if the intonation keeps going down. Practise the sentences below.

OOO Where’s my cup?

OOooOo My uncle was injured.

A38 F Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) cap

B) cup

2 a) hat

B) hut

3 a) bag

B) bug

4 a) mad

B) mud

5 a) hang

B) hung

6 a) ran

B) run

1 Dialogue

A First practise the sound /л/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Listen and repeat.

Lunch just much one love cousin doesn’t funny rubbish enough untrue shut up unhappy understand unattractive worry lovely honey brother other nothing company wonderful month does

A39 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-10) with the correct words from the box. They are all words like Love spelled with О but pronounced /л/.

Worry lovely honey brother other nothing company wonderful month does

UNIT 5 /л/ cup 21

S∙~e doesn’t love him

JASMINE: Honey, why are you so sad?

(Duncan says ι_______ .)

JASMINE: 2________ , why are you so unhappy? I don’t understand.

DUNCAN: You don’t love me, Jasmine.

JASMINE: But Duncan, I love you very much!

DUNCAN: That’s untrue, Jasmine. You love my cousin.

JASMINE: Justin?

DUNCAN: No, his 3________ .

JASMINE: Dudley?

DUNCAN: No. Stop being funny, Jasmine. Not that one. The 4__________ brother.

Hunter. You think he’s 5_________ and Γm unattractive.

JASMINE: Duncan! That’s utter rubbish!

DUNCAN: And Hunter loves you too.

JASMINE: No he doesn’t.

DUNCAN: Yes he 6________ .

JASMINE: Duncan, just once last 7_________ I had lunch with Hunter. You mustn’t

8________ . I like your 9_________ much better than Hunter’s.

Hunter’s ..

DUNCAN: Oh, just shut up, Jasmine!

JASMINE: But honey, I think you’re io_________ .

DUNCAN: Oh, shut up, Jasmine.

JASMINE: Now that’s enough! You’re just jealous, Duncan. You shut up!

∖39 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers. Then practise

Reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

2 Stress and intonation

Stress and intonation are used to show feelings in English. In the dialogue in 3b, you may have noticed that Jasmine’s stress and intonation changed at the end when she got angry with Duncan.

A40 a Study the sentences below, and then listen to the recording.

Emotions

N (neutral)

A (angry)

1 No, he doesn’t.

Ooθo

OOOo

2 Yes, he does.

Ooθ

OOO

3 Now that’s enough.

OooO

OOoO

4 I don’t understand.

OoooO

OOOoO

5 Oh just shut up.

OooO

OOOO

A4i Listen to the sentences and write A for angry or N for neutral.

1___ 2_____ 3____ 4.____ . 5

Complete this statement.

If someone speaks with a lot of________ Iy stressed words, with the

Intonation going________ all the time, they can sound very angry.

At2 b Intonation in a list

The intonation goes up on the last strongly stressed word in each phrase, and then down at the end. Listen and repeat.

He bought a Cup and some Nuts.

He bought a Cup, some Nuts and some HonEy.

He bought a Cup, some Nuts, some HonEy and a Brush.

C Game

1My uncle (mother∕brother∕cousin) went to London’

Practise this game with a group of five people. Choose any words from the list below.

EXAMPLE

A: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought a Bus company.

B: My uncle went to London and he spent a lot of money. He bought a Bus company and a toy Duck.

Each player remembers what the others have said and then adds something to the list.

Practise saying these phrases before you start.

A cup

An onion field

Some sacks of nuts

A cuddly monkey

A bus company

A toy duck

Some honey

A brush

A lovely butterfly

Some comfortable gloves

A bun shop

A hundred buttons

Some sunglasses

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /л/. Make a list of all the words in this unit that are pronounced /л/ but spelt with the letter o, like Love. Add other words to this list when you see them.

∕α∑∕ heart

Marvellous cars, aren’t they?

— Wonderful… fantastic… so fast…

— They are… they are…

1 Target sound ∕α∑∕

A43a a

∖ i3b b

A43c C

First practise the sound ∕ae∕

(see page 15). Listen and repeat.

Put your tongue further back and down to make the longer target sound ∕αι∕. Listen and repeat.

Listen and repeat both sounds together, ∕ae∕ is short, /α:/ is long.

V

2 Minimal pairs A

Sound 1

∕ae∕

Cap

What a lovely cap!

Hat

He touched his hat.

Cat

It’s a farm cat.

Ban

There’s a ban on it.

Pack

I’ll pack the car.

Sound 2

∕α∑∕

Carp

What a lovely carp!

Heart

He touched his heart.

Cart

It’s a farm cart.

Barn

There’s a barn on it.

Park

I’ll park the car.

M nimal pair words

Uia A Listen and repeat the words.

Vi ih b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For ∕ae∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕αι∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 1,1, 2, 2

Minimal pair sentences

A45a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

A45bd Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for ∕ae∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕αι∕ (sound 2).

A45a e Sentence stress

In English sentences, the important words have a strongly stressed syllable that is LOUDer and s 1 о w er. The unstressed syllables are quieter and quicker This gives English its rhythm.

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 23).

EXAMPLE What a LoveLy Carp!

minimal pairs b,sound 1
∕Λ∕
cup
what a beautiful cup!
,hut
there's a problem with my hut.
,cut
he covered his cut.
,bun
what's in that bun?
come
'come down,' she said.
sound 2 /α:/
carp
what a beautiful carp!
heart
there's a problem with my heart.
cart
he covered his cart.
barn
what's in that barn?
calm
'calm down,' she said.

Minimal pair words

Iw⅛aa Listenandrepeatthewords.

A4<A b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /e/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕ae∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 1, 2, 1, 2, 2

Minimal pair sentences

Λt7a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

M7b d Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for /л/ (sound 1) or 2 for /α:/ (sound 2).

Мае Sentencestress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (above).

EXAMPLE What’s in that bun?

F Tick the words a), b) or c) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) hat

B) hut

C) heart

2 a) cat

B) cut

C) cart

3 a) cap

B) cup

C) carp

4 a) bun

B) barn

5 a) come

B) calm

6 a) Patty’s

B) parties

3 Dialogue

⅛ a First practise the sound /α:/ in some of the names in the dialogue. Read the names aloud or visit the website to practise. Remember that when we say both the first and last names, the last name has the strongest stress.

It’s TarA. It’s Tara DarLing.

Bart TackSon Margaret Markus Marsh Alana The sound /α:/ is also in some of the words in your instructions, example answer the target Sound the mask the last name

. j b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-5) with the correct adjectives from the box.

Marvellous attractive fantastic fabulous smart

3 party

(Margaret and Alana are at the bar. People are laughing in the garden.)

ALANA: What a ι__________ party this is! I’m having so much fun, Margaret.

MARGARET: Where’s your glass, Alana?

ALANA: Here you are. Thanks. That’s enough.

MARTIN: Alanal Margaret! Come into the garden. Tara Darling and Markus Marsh are dancing on the grass.

MARGARET: In the dark?

MARTIN: They’re dancing under the stars.

ALANA: 2________ I And Bart Jackson is playing his guitar.

MARGARET: Just look at Taral She can’t dance but she looks very з_______ .

MARTIN: Look at Markus. What a 4________ dancer!

ALANA: What an 5________ couple they are! Let’s take a photograph of them.

A49 c Listen to the dialogue to check your answers. Then practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation in exclamations

We often show the feeling of surprise in an exclamation where the intonation goes a long way up and then down.

A50 a Listen and repeat.

What a Fast car!

What a Funny danCer!

What a MarVellous photograph!

What a fantastic guitar!

B Use these words to make exclamations about the pictures.

Dark dirty fast marvellous smart unusual funny fantastic

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /α:/.

review

Ξ≡-d game: Pick up pairs

Photocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in units 1-6.

Shuffle the cards and deal them face down all over the table.

Turn over any two cards and read their sentences aloud. If they are minimal pairs, you keep them and you continue playing.

If these two cards aren’t minimal pairs, turn them face down again and the next person plays.

Collect as many pairs as you can in a time limit, e. g. ten minutes.

ST

You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you don’t need to understand every word to do this test.

5i 1 For each line (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), first listen to the whole line. Then circle the one word that is said twice. Note that meaning is not important in this exercise. The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and this is shown by an asterisk *.

/i:/

∕r∕

∕e∕

∕ae∕

∕λ∕

IaJ

1

Bean

Bin

Ben

Ban

Bun

Barn

2

Beat

Bit

Bet

Bat

But

Bart

3

Bead

Bid

Bed

Bad

Bud

Bard*

4

Peak

Pick

Peck

Pack

Puck*

Park

5

Peaty*

Pity

Petty

Patty

Putty

Party

Score I /5 I

2 Circle the words with the same vowel sound as 1-3. 1 cup 2 heart

jump halfam arm cut home are∕λ∕ /α:/

Done sad doesn’t does match comb

Copy come hot
us yes

3 sheep
/i:/
Slip people bread piece any these stick shop

She this need

Score /15

Intonation jumble

Match the correct intonation pattern items a-f with the conversation items 1-6. Number 1 has been done.

1 a) (a list)
b) (yes!no question)
■ c) (statement)
d) (short statement)
e) (exclamation)
f) (question with ‘or’)
‘I’m going to make some jelly.’

2 ‘Would you like lemon or cherry?’

3 ‘Cherry.’

4 ‘Can I help?’

5 ‘I need a spoon, a bowl, some jelly crystals and some hot water.’

6 ‘What a lovely colour! ’

Score I /51

4 Word stress

Underline the main stressed syllable in these words. (Score half a mark per item.) advertising understand Lebanon lemonade sandwich expensive sunglasses fantastic photograph guitar Score I /5 1

Total score /30

Additional review task using dialogues from Units 1-6

Unit

1

2

3

4

5

6

Target sound

/i:/

∕ι∕

/e/

∕ce∕

∕λ∕

∕α∑∕

Sheep

Ship

Pen

Man

Cup

Heart

From the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficulty with.

1 Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.

2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.

3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.

4 Check your answers in the key.

5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.

6 Practise reading the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

You can also use this review task as a quick self-test, by doing steps 2 and 4 only.

/о/ clock

— ∖∖Tijt’s wrong?

— I’ve got a really bad backache.

— Γm sorry to hear that.

1 Target sound ∕o∕

■. j a First practise the sound ∕ae∕

(see page 15). Listen and repeat.

‘.^.zb B Put your tongue slightly back and

Bring your lips slightly forward to make the target sound ∕o∕. Listen and repeat.

λ^.⅛ c Listen and repeat both sounds together: ∕ae∕ and ∕t>∕.

Minimal pairs

Sound 1

∕ae∕

Hat

It’s hat weather.

Sound 2

∕d∕

Hot

It’s hot weather.

Cat

He’s got a white cat.

Cot

He’s got a white cot.

Fax

Look for the fax.

Fox

Look for the fox.

Sack

Put it in a sack.

Sock

Put it in a sock.

Tap

Turn that tap slowly.

Top

Turn that top slowly.

Backs

I can see their backs.

Box

I can see their box.

Minimal pair words

A53a a Listen and repeat the words.

A53b B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕ae∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕r>∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE: Pair 1: 2, 2,1, 2, 1

Minimal pair sentences

A54a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

A54bd Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕aε∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕τ>∕ (sound 2).

A54a e Sentence stress

The most important words for the meaning of a sentence are spoken with a strong stress. Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and match them with the sentence stress patterns below. The big circles are the strong syllables and the small circles are the weak syllables. EXAMPLE oθθo (Pair 1) It’s Hat weathEr./It’s Hot weathEr, a) OooO b) oooOO c) ooθoθ d) OoOOo e) OoooO

A55 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences

1 a) cat

B) cot

2 a) sack

B) sock

3 a) tap

B) top

4 a) Pat

B) pot

5 a) baddie ∣ ∣

B)body

6 a) black

B) block

Dialogue

A First practise the sound /d/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise, soft hot long strong popular horrible wants what wrong socks job got often sorry washing Mrs Bloggs

A56 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-6) with the correct adjectives from the box.

Soft hot long strong popular horrible

Advertisement for ‘Onwash’

VOICE A: What’s wrong with you, Mrs Bloggs?

MRS BLOGCS: What’s wrong with me? I want a holiday from this ι___________ job of

Washing socks!

VOICE B: Buy a bottle of ‘0πwash’, Mrs Bloggs!

VOICE C: ‘Onwash’ is so 2______ and з_______ .

VOICE D: You don’t want lots of 4_________ water with ‘Onwash’.

VOICE A: It’s not a 5________ job with ‘Onwash’.

VOICE B: Use ‘Onwash’ often.

VOICE C: You won’t be sorry when you’ve got ‘Onwash’.

VOICE D: Everybody wants ‘Onwash’.

EVERYBODY: ‘Onwash’ is so 6_______ I

∖56 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers. Then practise

Reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation in suggestions and commands

intonation is the voice going up or down. sometimes this shows whether the speaker is more polite and friendly or less friendly.
a57 a listen.
,intonation goes up in a suggestion, and this sounds polite and friendly:
have a holiday, mrs bloggs. stop w⅛shing. mrwong.
don’t drop that pot, ms morris. put it on the box. miss johnson.
,intonation goes down in a command, and this sounds less friendly:
have a holiday, mrs bloggs.
stop washing. mrwong.
don’t drop that pot, ms morris. put it on the box. miss johnson.

>>—τ Д58 b Intonation dictation

Listen to the intonation in the sentences below. Decide if they are suggestions (which are polite and friendly as the intonation is going u{f) or commands (which are less friendly as the intonation is going down). Draw an arrow up or down in the space before the StrongLy stressed word. Number 1 has been done.

1 Put these socks in the top~X DrawEr. John, Command_____________

2 Put it on top of the Box._________________

3 Make the coffee Hot, MrsWong.___________________

4 Don’t wash these socks in the WashIng machine,

Robin._________________

5 Don’t go to the wrong office.___________________

6 Go to the Shops, Oscar.____________________

7 Don’t go to the wrong DocTor. Bronwen. ____________________

Д58 c Listen again and then practise the sentences. Record your voice to

Compare your production of the intonation with the recording.

5 Spelling

‘ ,^ τ Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what

You noticed about how to spell the sound ∕o∕.

unit 9

4

— D. n. Iways goes for a jog in the morning.

— Don? Jogging? In the morning?

— ∖o, not Don! His daughter-in-law, Dawn. She’s very sporty.

1 ’arget sound /o:/

A First practise the sound /n/

(see page 29). Listen and repeat.

B The back of your tongue goes up a

Little more to make the long target *j

Sound /o:/. Listen and repeat.

C Listen and repeat both sounds together. *

∕υ∕ is short, /o:/ is long.

2 Minimal pairs

<⅛ Sound 1 Sound 2

/d/ ∕oς∕

‰ Don Dawn

Is your name Don? Is your name Dawn?

°z cod cord

This cod was in the sea. This cord was in the sea.

Shot short

He was shot. He was short.

Pot port

It’s a small pot. It’s a small port.

Fox forks

Look for the fox. Look for the forks.

Spot sport

I don’t like these spots. I don’t like these sports.

V — nimal pair words

. a Listen and repeat the words.

.- b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write I For /d/ (sound 1) or 2 for /o:/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 1, L 2, 2, 1

Minimal pair sentences

A6ia C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

A6ib D Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕t>∕ (sound 1) or 2 for /o:/ (sound 2).

A6ia E Sentence stress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 33). Notice that the strongly stressed words are LOUDer and s 1 о w er. The weakly stressed words are quieter and quicker.

A62 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) spots

B) sports

2 a) pots

B) ports

3 a) cod

B) cord

4 a) shot

B) short

5 a) Rod

B) roared

6 a) what a

B) water

Dialogue

First practise the sound /o:/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Laura morning walking towards airport awful always reporter report sports York fault (∕fodt∕ or ∕fυlt∕)

A football match

SCORE

A forward

Дез b Listen to the dialogue, paying particular attention to the target sound.

Sports report from Radio Station 4

ANNOUNCER: This morning the Roarers football team arrived back from York.

Laura Short is our sports reporter, and she was at the airport.

LAURA SHORT: Good morning, listeners. This is Laura Short. All the footballers are walking towards me. Here’s George Ball, the goalkeeper. Good morning, George.

GEORGE BALL: Good morning. Are you a reporter?

LAURA SHORT: Yes. George. Γm Laura Short from Radio Station 4. Tell us about the football match with York.

GEORGE BALL: Well, it was awful. We lost. And the score was forty-four, four. But it wasn’t my fault, Laura

LAURA SHORT: Whose fault was it, George?

GEORGE BALL: The forwards.

LAURA SHORT: The forwards?

GEORGE BALL: Yes. The forwards. They were always falling over or losing the ball! c Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your

Production of the target sound with the recording.

4 ntonation

Intonation is the voice going up or down. We can show a feeling of surprise with an intonation that goes a long way up.

. ∙; a Listen to the speakers expressing surprise.

A: Mr Short always plays football in the morning.

B: In the MorNing?

C: Mr Short?

D: FootBall?

E: Always?

In this conversation B, C, D and E are all surprised by what A says. B is surprised that he plays In the morning. C is surprised that Mr Short plays. D is surprised that he plays Football. E is surprised that he Always plays.

A65 b Listen and then express surprise about the part of the sentence in Italics, Like the example.

EXAMPLE I SawVictoria At the airport.

Response: At the airport?

1 Γve put the ball In the Drawer.

2 It’s too Warm to go walking.

3 GeorgIa was looking gorgeous this morning.

4 Morgan has Bought forty-five Forks.

5 Γm going to buy A Horse.

6 You ought to get up At Four in the MorNing.

7 I saw Orlando when I was In New York.

8 It’s Your fault.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /э:/.

unit 10
/и ∕ book

-We should put all these books in that box Now, shouldn’t — Yes, we should.

1 Target sound ∕υ∕

⅛(m a First practise the sound ∕d∕

(see page 29). Listen and repeat.

46et. b The back of your tongue goes forward

And up a little more to make the target "h

Sound ∕υ∕. C"^~~ 1

2 minimal pairs,sound,⅛p
pot the plant in the gard
,sound 2 ∕o∕
put
put the plant in the garden.
,cod
how do you spell ,cod,?
lock
i'll lock you up.
,could
how do you spell 'could'?
look
i'll look you up.
,rock,the wind blew around the rock.,rook
the wind blew around the rook.
,box
give me the box.
,books
give me the books.

il6l’n c Listen and repeat both of these short sounds: ∕n∕ and ∕υ∕.

Minimal pair words

⅛ a Listen and repeat the words.

T< b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For ∕d∕ (sound 1) or2for∕o∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 2, 1, 2, 1

Minimal pair sentences

C Listen to the minimal pair sentences, v∙"bd Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for ∕r>∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕u∕

(sound 2).

E Sentence stress

Any word in a sentence can become The most important word, and have the strongest stress to give the sentence a special meaning. Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and write the word which has the strongest stress in each pair in the table. Then read the special meanings.

Strongest stress

Special meaning

Pairl

In

Not just anywhere, e. g. near or beside it.

Pair 2

Everybody else has a different answer.

Pair3

Nobody else would do that.

Pair 4

But not under it or above it.

Pair 5

Don’t trust anybody else.

Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:

1 a) cock

B)cook

2 a) lock

I I b) look

3 a) god

□ b)good

4 a) cod

B) could

3 Dialogue

C a First practise the sound ∕u∕ in some of the words from this unit. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Good book foot cook look took should could would full sugar football bookshelf cookery shouldn’t couldn’t wouldn’t

•’ b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound, st book

MR COOK: Could you tell me where you’ve put my book, Bronwen?

MRS COOK: Isn’t it on the bookshelf?

MR COOK: No. The bookshelf is full of your cookery books.

MRS COOK: Then you should look in the bedroom, shouldn’t you?

MR COOK: I’ve looked. You took that book and put it somewhere, didn’t you? MRS COOK: The living room?

MR COOK: No. I’ve looked. I’m going to put all my books in a box and lock it! MRS COOK: Look, John! It’s on the floor next to your foot.

MR COOK: Ahl Good!

C Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation: down tags

EXAMPLE We should put all these books in that box Now, shouldn’t we? The intonation in most question tags is going down. This means that the speaker expects agreement. So down tags are used a lot in conversations to create agreement and rapport between the speakers.

A72 a Listen and repeat.

Sbguld you? ShauldN’t you? Could you? CouldN’t you? Would he? WouldN’t he?

He couldn’t Cook, could he? She could play FootBall, CouldN’t she? You wouldn’t Look, would you? They would like sugar, WouldN’t they?

A73 b Practise in pairs. Listen and respond, like the example.

EXAMPLE She couldn’t cook.

A: She couldn’t COpk, could she?

B: No, she CouldN’t.

1 We couldn’t cook a cake without sugar.

2 Good footballers shouldn’t eat too much pudding.

3 You should look at some good cookery books.

4 You wouldn’t ‘put your foot in it’*.

(*idiom meaning say or do the wrong thing)

5 They wouldn’t ‘cook the books’*.

(*idiom meaning change the accounts to steal money)

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕υ∕.

Boot

— i m full of good food.

— Such beautiful puddings!

— But too much sugar…

— . had a huge serving of chocolate mousse with stewed fruit.

-had the blueberry souffld And the rhubarb strudel.

— .’ was very foolish. I had two servings of gooseberry fool.

— .√hat a fool you are!

(Note:/ooZ has two meanings: 1 a stupid person; 2 mousse, souffle, strudel and fool are desserts)

Arget sound /u:/

A First practise the sound/u/

(see page 36). Listen and repeat.

B Put your tongue up and back a little more to make the long target sound /u:/. Listen and repeat.

_. c Listen and repeat both sounds together, /u/ is short, /u:/ is long.

2 V nimal pairs

Sound 1

∕υ∕

Look

Look, a new moon!

Sound 2

Zu:/

Luke

Luke, a new moon!

PULL

Pull

The sign said ‘Puli’.

Full

This isn’t really full proof.

Pool

The sign said ‘Pool’.

Fool

This isn’t really foolproof.

Could

The bird could.

Cooed

The bird cooed.

Would

‘He would, Julie, at the full moon.’

Wooed

He wooed Julie at the full moon.

(Note: proo∕has two meanings: 1 evidence that something is true; 2 Foolproof- made so that it can’t be damaged, even by a fool)

Minimal pair words

ιι∙{j a Listen and repeat the words.

И si. b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For ∕oZ (sound 1) or 2 for /u:/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 2, 1, 2, 1

Minimal pair sentences

Bta c Listentotheminimalpairsentences.

ιt-ιι> d Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for ∕o∕ (sound 1) or 2 for /u:/ (sound 2).

B⅛ e Listen to the strong and weak stresses in: oθooθo a FoolProof computer. Then listen and Underline the strong stresses in:

OooO waterproof boots oθoθo a wind-proof jacket

OooOo childproof containers oθooθ an ovenproof dish oθooθ a waterproof coat oOooO a bullet-proof vest.

« f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) look

B)Luke

2 a) full

B) fool

3 a) pull

B) pool

4 a) fullish

B) foolish

5 a) would

B) wooed

Dialogue

A First practise the sound /u:/ in some of the words and phrases from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Who school soup threw unit rudeness rudest student continue computer chewing gum excuse me good afternoon it was you!

В? b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and guess which words are strongly stressed. The number in brackets tells you how many strong stresses there are in that line. The first line has been done.

В? c Listen to the dialogue again and Underline the strong stresses. Check your answers.

Two rudest students in the school

MISS LUKE:

(1)

GIRLS:

(2)

MISS LUKE:

(4)

(5)

LUCY:

(2)

MISS LUKE:

(1)

LUCY:

(2)

MISS LUKE:

(5)

LUCY:

(2)

MISS LUKE:

(1)

LUCY:

(2)

SUSAN:

(3)

JULIE:

(1)

SUSAN:

(8)

JULIE:

(4)

SUSAN:

(1)

JULIE:

(1)

MISS LUKE:

(H)

Good afterNoon girls.

Good afternoon, Miss Luke.

This afternoon we’re going to learn how to cook soup.

Turn on your computers and look at unit twenty-two.

Excuse me, Miss Luke.

Yes, Lucy?

There’s some chewing gum on your shoe.

Who threw their chewing gum on the floor? Was it you, Lucy? No, Miss Luke. It was Susan.

Who?

Susan Duke.

It wasn’t me, stupid. It was Julie.

It was you!

It wasn’t me! My mouth’s full of chewing gum. Look, Miss Luke! Stop pulling my hair, Susan. It was you!

YOU!

YOU!

Excuse me! If you two continue with this rudeness, you can stay after school instead of going to the pool.

4 Sentence stress

Wι a Listen to this conversation. Notice how the strongly stressed words are LOUDer, and the weakly stressed words are said very quiddy.

A: ExCuse me.

B: Yes?

A: Could you Tell me where I can get some (1) ShoeLaces?

B: Yes. There’s a Shop next to the (2) supermarket that sells Very good

(1) ShoeLaces. Γm going there Too.

B Use the words below to make more conversations like the one in 4a. Try to say the unstressed syllables quickly.

1

Shoelaces herbal shampoo toothpaste

Tools

Football boots

Tuna

Chewing gum fresh fruit juice

2

Supermarket swimming pool computer shop newspaper stand school

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound Zu:/.

it 12
/з:/ girl
- all my co-workers have started... er ... walking :o work ... er ... very early in the morning.
- oh. and do you walk to work?
∖ot me ... er ... Γm the world’s worst walker.
6fget sound /з:/
.«a first practise the sound/o:/
(see page 33). listen and repeat. s-ь b putyourtongueforwardandupa
little more to make the target sound /з:/. listen and repeat.
-с c listen and repeat both of these long sounds together: /o:/ and /з:/.
2 minimal pairs a
sound 1
∕oι∕
four
she's got four.
sound 2
/з:/
fur
she's got fur.
turn
ifs a turn sign.
worm
i wouldn't like worm soup.
worker
he's a fast worker.
torn
it's a torn sign.
warm
i wouldn't like warm soup.
walker
he's a fast walker.

— mal pair words

N ιoa a Listen and repeat the words.

Mb B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /o:/ (sound 1) or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 1, 2,1, 1. 2

Minimal pair sentences

Bi и c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Biibd Listen to four of the sentences and write 1 for /□:/ (sound 1) or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

Biiae Sentencestress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 43).

EXAMPLE I WouldN’t like Warm soup.

minimal pairs b
sound 1
/e/
ten
the sign says ten.
ben
look at it, ben.
bed
it's a colourful bed.
west
it's the west wind.
sound 2
/з:/
turn
the sign says turn.
burn
look at it burn.
bird
it's a colourful bird,
worst
it's the worst wind.

Minimal pair words

Bi-⅛ a Listen and repeat the words.

В ив b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /e/ (sound 1) or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2,2, 2,1,1

Minimal pair sentences

Виз c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Bi3b D Listen to four of the sentences and write 1 for ∕e∕ (sound 1) or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

BUa e Sentence stress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (above).

EXAMPLE It’s the west wind.

UNIT 12/з:/girl 45

mal pairs c
 sound 1 sound 2
.∙ i ∕Λ∕ ∕3∑∕
 fun fern
r fabulous fun! fabulous fern!
4> bun burn
 look at that bun. look at that burn.
£ 
 bud bird
r that's a tiny little bud. that's a tiny little bird.
^t⅛ gull girl
≠^ there's a gull on the beach. there's a girl on the beach.

τιal pair words

A Listen and repeat the words.

B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For ∕λ∕ (sound 1} or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 1, 2, 1, 2, 1

τal pair sentences

C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

D Listen to four of the sentences and write 1 for /л/ (sound 1) or 2 for /з:/ (sound 2).

E Sentence stress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (above).

EXAMPLE Fabulous fun!

F Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences:

1 a) bed

B) bud

C) bird

2 a) Ben’s

B) buns

C) burns

3 a) ward

B) word

4 a) walk

B) work

5 a) short

B) shirt

6 a) or

B) er

Alogue

A First practise the sound /з:/ in words from the dialogue below. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise, were weren’t nurse worst world shirts hurts thirsty Thursday dirty Sir Herbert Colonel Burton

B Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.

The worst nurse

SIR HERBERT: Nurse!

COLONEL BURTON: Nurse! Γm thirsty!

SIR HERBERT: Nurse! My head hurts!

COLONEL BURTON: Nurse Sherman always wears such dirty shirts.

SIR HERBERT: He never arrives at work early.

COLONEL BURTON: He and er… Nurse Turner weren’t at work on Thursday, were they?

SIR HERBERT: No, they weren’t.

COLONEL BURTON: Nurse Sherman is the worst nurse in the ward, isn’t he, Sir Herbert?

SIR HERBERT: No, he isn’t, Colonel Burton. He’s the worst nurse in the world!

C Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation: up or down tags

Bi8 A The intonation of question tags is usually going down. This means the speaker expects agreement. Down tags are used a lot to create agreement and rapport between the speakers.

EXAMPLE A: We were at work early, Weren’t we?

B: Yes, we were.

Sometimes the intonation goes up. This means the speaker is not sure if the information is correct and is asking the listener to check it. Before an up tag there is often a slight pause..

EXAMPLE A: The nurses were at work on Thursday, weren’t they?

B: Yes, they were.

* э b Up or down?

Listen and mark intonation arrows on the tags (expects agreement) or (not sure). Number 1 has been done.

1 They weren’t WalkIng to work, W€re they? Not sure______________

2 Those dirty shirts were Nurse Turner’s, Weren’t they?_________________

3 The wards weren’t dirty, Were they?__________________

4 They weren’t speaking GerMan, Were they?_________________

5 Those nurses were ThirSty, Weren’t they?___________________

6 The Colonel and Sir Herbert were the worst patients in the Ward.

Weren’t they?__________________

C Practise reading the questions above with the same intonation. Record your voice to compare your production of the intonation with the recording.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /з:/.

unit 13
/э/ a camera

a photograph of barbara 1 о photograph of barboro,о glass of wato
a glass of water

a pair of binoculars,a photograph of her mother and father о pair of binoculos,о photograph of ho mothor ond fatho,о book obout south omerico

— Remember to telephone your sister the day after tomorrow, for her birthday.

— And don’t forget to send a letter to your brother.

— Shall I send You a letter?

— Of course. But don’t forget to telephone as soon as you arrive.

Target sound /э/

B20a A First practise the sound /з:/

(see page 43). Listen and repeat.

B20b b Make the same sound but very very short to make the target sound ∕o∕. Listen and repeat.

B20c c Listen and repeat both sounds together: /з:/ is long, ∕o∕ is very short.

2 /Э/ in unstressed words and syllables

B2ia A Listen and repeat. The spelling has been changed in the words on the right to show you when to use the sound ∕o∕.

A book about South America

B Cover the words on the left and practise questions and answers. EXAMPLE A: What’s in picture two?

B: о glass of wato

c telling the time
listen and repeat. look at the clock. what’s the time?
it’s six o’clock.
it’s a quarter to seven.
look 9t tho clock. what’s шэ time?
it’s six o’clock.
it’s э quart9 t9 sevan.

Now practise these.

EXAMPLE A: What’s tho time?

B: It’s э quarto t9 twelve.

3 — eading aloud

a Read this story aloud or visit the website to practise. The spelling has been changed to show you when to make the sound ∕a∕. Record your voice to listen to your production of the target sound.

ВагЬэгэ spent Sataday aftanoon looking 9t э beautifal book about South americ9.

T want ta go ta South omerico,’ she said ta haself.

Tha next morning, when Barbara woke up it was six a’clock, and ha

Brothas and sistas wa still asleep. Barbara looked at tham, and then closed har eyes again.

Then she quiatly got out af bed and started ta pack ha suitcase.

She took same comfatable clothes out af tha cupbad. She packed a

Pair af binoculas and ha sista’s camara. She packed a photagraph af haself and one af ha mothar and fatha.

T musn’t faget ta have same breakfast,’ she said ta haself. Bat then she looked at tha clock. It was a quarta ta seven.

TTljast drink a glass af wata,’ she said.

‘a glass af wata,’ she said.

‘Wata,’ she said, and opened har eyes.

She was still in ha bed, and ha brothas and sistas wa laughing at ha. ‘Tell as what you wa dreaming about,’ they said ta ha.

Bat Barbara didn’t answa. She was thinking about ha wondaful

Journey ta South america.

B22 b Weak forms

Listen to the example of the weak form and the strong form of Was.

EXAMPLE

Was she dreaming?

This is the sound ∕a∕. This is the weak form of Was.

Yes, she was.

This is a different sound. This is the strong form of Was

yes, she was. yes, they were. yes, they do. yes, i have. yes, he does. yes, we are. yes, he has. yes, i can.Then listen and repeat.

Was she thinking about South America? Wa her brothers and sisters asleep?

Da they like reading?

Have you read about South America? Das your friend like reading? a we working hard?

Has your friend been to South America? Can you swim?

B23 c Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

La)

Has

B) has

2 a)

Can

B) can

За)

Was

B) was

4 a)

Does

B) das

5 a)

Am

B) am

6 a)

Them

B) tham

— L aiogue

A Read this dialogue and circle the sound /э/. The first line has been done for you.

I ∑COtng

A: I’m going tfi>th⅛5 library.

B: Can you buy something for me at the newsagent’s?

A: But the newsagent’s is a mile from the library.

B: No. Not that newsagent’s. Not the one that’s next to the fish and chip shop.

I mean the one that’s near the butcher’s.

A: Oh, yes. Well, what do you want?

B: Some chocolates and a tin of sweets and an address book, i∣.i b Listen and check your answers, then practise reading the dialogue

Aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /э/.

unit 14 review

Card game: Pick up same sounds

Photocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in Units 8-13.

Shuffle the cards and deal them face down all over the table.

Turn over any two cards and read their sentences aloud. If they are the same vowel sound you keep them and you continue playing.

If those two cards aren’t the same vowel sound, turn them face down again and the next person plays.

Collect as many same sound pairs as you can in a time limit, e. g. ten minutes.

TEST

You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you don’t have to understand every word to do this test.

B2j 1 For each line (1, 2, 3, 4), first listen to the whole line. Then circle the one word — or part of a word — that is said twice. Note that meaning is not important in this exercise. The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and this is shown by an asterisk*. Incomplete words have the rest of the word written in brackets, E. g.foll(ow).

∕d∕

/o:/

∕υ∕

/u:/

/з:/

1 Poll(y)

Paul

Pull

Pool

Pearl

2 foil (ow)

Fall

Full

Fool

Furl*

3 cod

Cord

Could

Cooed

Curd*

4 wad

Ward

Would

Wooed*

Word

Score I /4 I

2 Circle the words with the same vowel sound as 1-4. 1 bird 2 ball

torn water
girl all glass
four log
talk nurse
/з:/ /э:/

Bed were rude burn

Early board shirt worst shot

3 boot

4 book

/u:/

Look

Shoe two could though

Morning super do

/υ:/

Full box

Cook who

Lock threw would look tool good

Clock

Score |_7_20]

3 Listen to the sentences and mark which kind of question tag is being used:

Agreement (expected) unsure (so checking the information)

1 You can buy bootlaces at the shoeshop, can’t you?_________________

2 That carpet shop sells cushions too, doesn’t it?_________________ .

3 Sue bought her flute at the music shop, didn’t she?__________________

4 You’d like a new cookery book, wouldn’t you?_________________

5 The bookshop’s next to the newsagent’s, isn’t it?________________

6 You do want your birthday presents to be a surprise,

Don’t you?__________________

Score ∣ 7 6 ]

Total score [^ /30 ]

Rional review task using dialogues from Units 8-12

Unit

8

9

10

11

12

13

Target sound

∕d∕

/э:/

∕υ∕

/u:/

/a:/

/э/

Clock

Ball

Book

Boot

Girl

A camera

From the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficulty with.

1 Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound. If you have chosen the target sound /э/, listen for that sound in any of the dialogues from Units 8-12.

2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.

3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.

4 Check your answers in the key.

5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.

6 Read the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the CD.

You can also use this review task as a quick self-test, by doing steps 2 and 4 only.

unit 15
∕eι∕ male
- i’m afraid i’ve made a mistake on this form.
is your name spelt j-a-c-k?
- no. it’s j-a-h-k. and here’s another mistake.
my occupation. Γm not a wine taster. Γm a food tester.
1 target sound ∕eι∕
b27a a first practise the sound ∕e∕ (see
page 11). then practise the short sound ∕ι∕ (see page 7). listen and repeat.
b27b b join the two sounds: ∕eeeι∕.
b27c c listen and repeat the target sound ∕eι∕.
the second part of the sound is shorter.
minimal
v.
pairs
sound 1
∕e∕
pen
what an awful pen!
shed
the dog's in the shed.
edge
it's a difficult edge.
sound 2
∕eι∕
pain
what an awful pain!
shade
the dog's in the shade.
age
it's a difficult age.
wait
just wait.
wet
just wet.
test
test this food.
taste
taste this food.

pepper
that's too much pepper.
Paper

That’s too much paper.

Minimal pair words

B2βa a Listen and repeat the words.

B28b b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕e∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕eι∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 1, 1, 2, 21 1

^ pair sentences

C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

. d Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕e∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕eι∕

(sound 2).

E Sentence stress

First read the minimal pair sentences and try to guess which words will be stressed. Notice which words are nouns, adjectives or main verbs. These are often important, and the most important words for the meaning of a sentence are stressed.

Then listen to the sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 54).

EXAMPLE What an awful Pen! I What an awful Pain! f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) pen I I b) pain O

2 a)shed b)shade O

3 a) pepper b) paper O

4 a) let I I b) late

5 a) letter b) later O

6 a) get □ b) gate O

— aiogue

A First practise the target sound ∕eι∕ in some words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise, made late changed may say train waiting eight Grey timetable April station ages Baker eighteen afraid mistake today

B Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.

^∈ railway station

(Mr Grey is waiting at the railway station for a train.)

MR GREY: This train’s late! I’ve been waiting here for ages.

PORTER: Which train?

MRGREY: The 8.18 to Baker Street.

PORTER: The 8.18? I’m afraid you’ve made a mistake, sir.

MR GREY: A mistake? My timetable says: Baker Street train — 8.18.

PORTER: Oh no. The Baker Street train leaves at 8.08.

MR GREY: At 8.08?

PORTER: They changed the timetable at the end of April. It’s the first of May today.

MR GREY: Changed it? May I see the new timetable? What does it say?

PORTER: It says: Baker Street train — 8.08.

MR GREY: Oh no, you’re right. The train isn’t late. I am.

C Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation

B32 a In a conversation we can show surprise by repeating the other person’s words with the intonation going up. Listen.

EXAMPLES

A: Pmafraidyou1VemadeamistakelSir. B: A misTake?

A: They changed the timetable. B: Changed it?

B33 b Write B’s part in the conversation below by repeating the part in Italics. Note that number 7 needs a different word in the answer. Draw intonation arrows following the example in 1. Check your answers by listening to the recording and then practise the intonation. Record your voice to compare your production of the intonation with the recording.

1 A: It’s The eighth of May.

2 A: Yes. It’s Mrs Grey’s birthday Today.

3 A: Yes. She’s Eighty-eight.

4 A: Yes. And she’s Going away for a holiday

5 A: That’s right. And she’s going By plane.

6 A: Yes. She wants to go To Spain.

7 A: That’s right. Why don’t You go with her?

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about spelling the sound ∕eι∕.

∕aι∕ fine

— ег… Hi!… Are you all right? … er… л juld you like a ride in my cart?

-Vj thanks. Γm fine. Γm just firing my kite ind enjoying the sunshine.

— Jh… er… alright! Have a nice time!

Target sound ∕aι∕

κ>t*

First practise the long sound /α:/ (see page 23). Then practise the short sound ∕ι∕ (see page 7). Listen and repeat. Join the two sounds: ∕αιαma∕.

Listen and repeat the target sound ∕aι∕. The second part of the sound is shorter.

A:

Minimal pairs

Sound 1 ,GI

Bar

That was a good bar.

Bark

What a noisy bark.

Pa

He loves his Pa.

Sound 2

—,aι∕

Buy

That was a good buy.

Bike

What a noisy bike.

Pie

He loves his pie.

R

It’s got two R’s.

Cart

It’s a cart.

Heart

Check the heart.

Eye

It’s got two eyes.

Kite

It’s a kite.

Height

Check the height.

Minimal pair words

B35 A Listen and repeat the words.

B36 b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /a:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕aι∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 2,1,1,1

Minimal pair sentences

Вз7а c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Вз7Ь d Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for /a:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕aι∕ (sound 2).

B37a e Sentence stress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 57). Strongly stressed words are LOUDer and s 1 о w er. Weakly stressed words are quieter and quicker

EXAMPLE That was a Good buy.

B38 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) cart

B) kite

2 a) darning ∣

B) dining

3 a) star

B) sty

4 a) laugh

B) life

5 a) hard

B) hide

6 a) Pa

B) pie

3 Dialogue

A First practise the target sound ∕aι∕ in words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise, hi right ride smile five nine drive Miles Heidi Riley Nigel Caroline bike nice type iced mobile climbing spider Friday library tonight

B39 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps 1-10 with the correct words from the box.

Bike nice type iced mobile climbing spider Friday library tonight

Heidi, Caroline and Nigel

(Heidi and Caroline are both typing.)

HEIDI: (Stops typing. She’s smiling.) Hi, Nigel.

NIGEL: Hi, Heidi. Hi, Caroline. You’re looking 1_________ , Caroline.

(Silence from Caroline. She keeps typing.)

NIGEL: Would you like some 2_________ coffee, Caroline?

CAROLINE: (Keeps on typing.) No thanks, Nigel. I’m busy typing. I have 99 pages to 3 by Friday.

NIGEL: Never mind. Do you like motor 4__________ riding, Caroline?

CAROLINE: Sometimes. (Mobile phone rings.) … My 5__________ I. .. Hello…

(Smiles.) … Hi, Riley! MmmrnI… (Laughs.) … I’d like that…

Mmmm… at five… at the 6_________ … it’s 19 High Street… bye

Bye! (Caroline puts away her mobile and starts typing.)

NIGEL: Would you like to come riding with me 7____________ , Caroline?

CAROLINE: Not tonight, Nigel. I’m going for a drive with Riley. (Smiles to herself and keeps typing.)

NIGEL: What about 8________ ?

CAROLINE: Friday? I’m going 9___________ With Miles.

NIGEL: All right then. Bye.

HEIDI: Caroline, Nigel’s put something behind your computer.

CAROLINE: Is it something nice, Heidi?

HEIDI: No. It’S a 10_________ . ‘~∖ ∣L-s

C Listen to the dialogue to check your answers. Then practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

.,. 3rd stress

A Listen and repeat.

Flying ice skating sky diving driving horse riding wine tasting kite flying climbing cycling

B Use the words above to practise this conversation.

A: 1 think_________ is quite exciting. Do You like it?

B: Yes. Would you Like to come__________ with me on Friday?

A: I’d really Like to. But I’m busy on Friday. Would some other time be all Right?

Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕aι∕.

unit 17,∕oι∕ boy,-1 put all this oil in the rice?
-yes, all the oil, and then let it boil.
1 target sound ∕oι∕
,m∣4 a first practise the sound /э:/ (see page 33). then practise the short sound ∕ι∕
(see page 7). listen and repeat.
nub b join the two sounds: ∕oιoιoπ∕.
an. c listenandrepeatthetargetsoundzai/. the second part of the sound is shorter.
,minimal pairs
 sound 1 sound 2
 /o:/ ∕oι∕
∙w all oil
 ifs all there. ifs oil there.

,ball,it's a ball on his head.,boil
it's a boil on his head.
corn
look at that golden corn.
coin
look at that golden coin.
tore toy
the paper tore. the paper toy.
roar
hear the engine roar.
roy
hear the engine, roy.

Minimal pair words

Bi; a Listenandrepeatthewords-Thenlistenandrepeat.

B∣.,ħ b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1

For /э:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕oι∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairL 1,2, 1,2, 2

Minimal pair sentences

Tu u c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

BJ ib d Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for /o:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕oι∕ (sound 2).

■ -. e Sentence stress

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and notice that the most important words for the speaker’s meaning are LOUDer. The less important words for the meaning are quieter. Underline the most important words in the sentences (on page 60).

EXAMPLE Elear the engine, Roy.

. f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) corn

B) coin

2 a) bawling ∣ ∣

B) boiling

3 a) all

B) oil

4 a) aw

B) oi

5 a) bore

B) boy

6 a) all

B) oil

3 Z 2 ogue

A First practise the target sound ∕oι∕ in words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Boy toy noise voice spoilt pointing destroyed employed appointment annoying disappointing Intonation in names

The main stress is on the last name.

Joyce Royal Roy Coyne Rolls ROyce

B Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound.

Royal’s Rolls Royce

(Joyce Royal takes her noisy Rolls Royce to the mechanic employed at the garage, a young boy named Roy Coyne. Roy loves Rolls Royces.)

ROY COYNE: What a terrible noise, Mrs Royal!

JOYCE ROYAL: Isn’t it annoying, Roy? Ifs out of oil.

ROY COYNE: A Rolls Royce! Out of oil? … And look! (pointing) … The water’s

Boiling! Perhaps you’ve spoilt the motor. Or even destroyed it. How disappointing! Ifs such a beautiful Rolls Royce! (raising his voice) .. AND A ROLLS ROYCE ISN’T A TOY!

JOYCE ROYAL: How disappointing! I’ll be late for my appointment.

62 UNIT 17 Ы boy

C Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Word stress

B46 a Guess the main stressed syllable in each word in this list. (They all contain the same sound.) Then listen and check your answers, annoying unemployment oyster employer appointment enjoy poisonous destroyer ointment moist embroidery toilet disappointed join

B Dictionary work: secondary stress

In Ship or Sheep? the main stress in a word is shown in bold, e. g. Employment.

When you meet a new word, you can check the word stress in a good dictionary (e. g. Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary). Most dictionaries use the symbol1 in front of the main stressed syllable, and the symbol ∣ to show any secondary stress (usually in longer words),

E. g. ∕∣Λnιmlploιm3nt∕.

Choose four of the longest words in the list in 4a and use your dictionary to check if there is any secondary stress.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕oι∕.

∕aυ∕ house
• s your cow?
>-r^er now Γm taking it to roy coyne. it’s running tidthetownusingmuchlessoil.
: ltt ask about your car! i said how’s your cow? - know, your brown cow!
∙et sound ∕au∕
- a first practise the sound ∕ae∕ (see
page 23). then practise the sound ∕u∕ (see page 36). listen and repeat.
- ■ b join the two sounds: /агагаео/.
■ - c listen and repeat the target sound ∕aυ∕. the second part of the sound is shorter.
4r-
a
imal pairs
sound 1 sound 2
/a:/ ∕aυ∕
car cow
it's the best car. it's the best cow.
bar bow
it was a long bar. it was a long bow.
bra brow
her bra was wrinkled. her brow was wrinkled.
grass grouse
,there's beautiful grass here. there's beautiful grouse here, α-⅛ 4~

Arch ouch

‘Arch!’ he said loudly. ‘Ouch!’ he said loudly.

—al Pair words

-a A Listen and repeat the words.

J b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /a:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕aυ∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 1, 1, 2, 2

Minimal pair sentences

B49a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

B4½d Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for ∕a∑∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕aυ∕ (sound 2).

B49a e Sentence stress

First read the minimal pair sentences and notice which words are adjectives or adverbs. These are often important for the meaning of a sentence (as well as nouns and main verbs). Then listen to the sentences again and Underline the sentence stress (on page 63).

EXAMPLE It’s the Best car.

B50 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a)

Car

B) cow

2 a)

Grass

B) grouse

За)

Bra

B) brow

4 a)

Ha

B) how

5 a)

Ah

B) ow!

6 a)

Tarn

B) town

Dialogue

O a First practise the sound ∕au∕ in words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Ow! now how shouting house mouse couch loudly town down frown brown round found lounge ground somehow mountain around pronounce upside down

B5i b Correction

There are six items to change in the dialogue. Read the dialogue and listen to the recording at the same time. Make the words the same as the recording,

A mouse in the house

mr brown
mrs brown
mr brown
mrs brown
mr brown
mrs brown
mr brown
(shouting loudly) I’VE FOUND A MOUSE!

Ow! You’re shouting too loudly. Sit down and don’t frown. (sitting down) I’ve found a mouse in the house.

A town mouse?

Yes. A little round mouse. It’s running around in the lounge. On the ground?

Yes. It’s under the couch now.

MRS BROWN: Well, get it out.

MR BROWN: How?

MRS BROWN: Turn the couch upside down. Get it out somehow We don’t want a mouse in our house. Ours is the cleanest house in the town!

C Practise reading the corrected dialogue. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Stress in phrasal verbs

Nr? a EXAMPLE 1 Sit Down.

Listen and repeat.

1 He’s sitting Down.

2 He’s lying Down.

3 He’s StandIng Up.

4 He’s TurnIng Round.

5 He’s ShoutIng Out.

6 He’s RunnIng aRound.

B Match these pictures with the correct sentences in 4a.

В >з c EXAMPLE 2 Get it Out.

Listen and repeat.

1 Put it Down. 4 Turn it Down.

2 Take it out. 5 Work it Out.

3 Throw it out-

D Match these pictures with the correct sentences in 4c.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕au∕.

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