UNIT 28

∕g∕ girl

-id you get me some groceries when you go out?

» ,u: exactly — nutmeg? gherkins? yoghurt?

• urse not! Get me some bagels if they’ve got any… -.. sugar, eggs, garlic… and… mm… figs and — ires, if they’re any good.

⅝..

<∕υ

Et sound ∕g∕

; a First practise the sound ∕k∕

(see page 97). This is an unvoiced
sound. Listen and repeat.

∣i b Use your voice to make the target
sound ∕g∕. Listen and repeat.

Ж c Listenandrepeatbothsounds

Together, ∕k∕ is unvoiced, ∕g∕ is voiced.

J d Notice that sometimes ∕g∕ is quieter

Because the air isn’t released suddenly. Listen.

Big bag fig figs egg eggs example nutmeg

’ nimal pairs

Sound 1

∕k∕

Coat

It’s a hairy coat.

Curl

; got a lovely curl.

Class

‘s a brilliant class.

Sound 2

∕g∕

Goat

It’s a hairy goat.

Girl

He’s got a lovely girl.

Glass

It’s a brilliant glass.

Back

She’s got a strong back.

Crow

It’s crowing.

Bag

She’s got a strong bag.

Grow

It’s growing.

Minimal pair words

Cua A Listen and repeat the words. Notice that the target sound is quieter in the word Bag.

Ci ib B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕k∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕g∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 1,2, 1,1,2

Minimal pair sentences

Ci5a C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Cιsb D Listen to five of the sentences and write 1 for ∕k∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕g∕ (sound 2).

Ci5a e Sentence stress

In spoken English sentences, the most important words for the speaker meaning are strongly stressed. Strongly stressed words are LOUDer and s 1 о w er. Weakly stressed words are quieter and quicker This gives English its rhythm.

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the strongly stressed words (on page 101).

EXAMPLE He’s got a LoveLy Girl.

Ci6 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

La)

Cold

B) gold

2 a)

Back

B) bag

За)

Clock

B) clog

4 a)

Curl

B) girl

5 a)

Frock

B) frog

6 a)

Clue

B) glue

3 Phone messages

A First practice the target sound ∕g∕. Some of these words are from the phone messages you will hear. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

∕g∕ is LOUD before a vowel and quite loud before /1/ and ∕r∕. groups of girls giggling and gossiping together taking great photographs of a guy in the garden cutting the grass Maggie isn’t in Glasgow. Guess again.

She’s gone to Portugal and Greece until August.

∕g∕ is often quieter at the end of a word or before a consonant.

This is an example.

Another example is fog. Also smog, rugs mugs hugs rugby

A jog with a big dog big dogs a big pig big pigs

A frog frog’s eggs frog’s legs

Craig Craig’s big bag Craig has jetlag.

WTiat happens when the next word begins with a vowel? Is /g/ LOUDer

There’s a big old dogin the garden. Fog_and smogare what we’ve got. Read the dialogue aloud.

Greg and Craig and Maggie.

Notice how two /g/ sounds join together.

It’s a big garden. He’s a big guy. Has the fog gone? k/ and /g/

Quickly scan all the words in the box below and Underline all those with the sound /k/.

Computer Maggie postcard Glasgow beginning games weekend Portugal Greece grass catch guess cut camp August girls gossip couple Carol garden Craig

Check your answers before going on to 3b.

‘ b Close your book and listen to Craig and Maggie’s phone messages on

Their answering machine, paying attention to the target sound. Then complete the sentences below. Each missing word has the sound /k/ or g/, and is in the box above. Number 1 has been done as an example.

D Maggie’s answering machine

1 Greg and Carol want to stay for a Couple of days at Craig And Maggie ls house in Glasgow .

2 They’re coming to_______ at the_______ of_______ .

3 is always giggling. She wants to______________ up on all

The_______ .

4 The last time they got together, Greg and Craig played__________

_______ while the two________ went shopping.

5 Carol says, T______ you’ve gone away for the_______ .’

6 Craig and Maggie sent a_______ from_________ , but they’re going

To go to Greece.

7 While Craig and Maggie are in________ , Greg and Carol are going

To_____ in their_________ .

8 Greg says they’ll be very grateful and they’ll________ the______ .

C Listen to the complete sentences from 3b and check your answers. Then practise reading the sentences aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the sounds /k/ and /g/ with the recording.

4 Consonant dusters

Choose the correct heading from this box for each list of consonant clusters (1-3) below.

∕gl ∕gz∕ ∕gr∕

1 2__________ 3__________

Exam

English

Angry

Eggs

Glove

Hungry

Executive

Glasses

Grammar

Earplugs

Glamorous

Grapefruit

Hugs

Singly

Grateful

Exactly

Global

Congratulations

Use your dictionary to check the word stress and meaning of any words you don’t know.

ςι Now listen to the recording of the clusters. Do you think the ∕g∕ is quieter in any of the lists above?

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕g∕.

Game: Pick up pairs

Photocopy and cut out cards from all minimal pairs in Units 24, 26 and 28. Shuffle the cards and deal them face down all over the table.

Turn over any two cards and read their sentences aloud. If they are minimal pairs (consonants), you keep them and you continue playing.

If those two cards aren’t minimal pairs, turn them face down again and the next person plays.

Collect as many minimal pairs as you can in a time limit, e. g. ten minutes.

You can use a dictionary if you wish, but you don’t have to understand every word to do this test.

_ 1 For each line (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), first listen to the whole line. Then circle the one word that is said twice. Note that meaning is not so important in this exercise. The purpose is to review the sounds by hearing them in contrast. Some of the words are rarely used in everyday English, and this is shown by an asterisk *.

∕p∕

∕b∕

∕t∕

∕d∕

Zk/

∕g∕

1 paw

Bore

Tore

Door

Core

Gore*

2 pill

Bill

Till

Dill

Kill

Gi∏

3 pay

Bay

Tay

Day

Kay

Gay

4 P

B

Tea

Dee

Key

Ghee*

5 Pooh!

Boo!

Two

Do

COO

Goo

Score [ /5 I

2 Circle the words with the same vowel sound as 1-3

1 tree 2 clock

Λr∕ ∕kl∕

Enclosed

Glass class quite walked clothes microwave chocolate glamorous quickly

Black

Appreciate

Place plum brother impressive

Probably breakfast present prawn

Score ∕ 151

3 Pick the different one: ∕t∕, ∕d∕ or ∕ιd∕

Underline the Ed ending that has a different pronunciation. EXAMPLE telephoned rained answered walked

1

Brushed

Washed

Emptied

Tossed

2

Walked

Watched

Laughed

Filled

3

Waited

Departed

Combed

Painted

4

Pushed

Snowed

Cleaned

Filled

5

Whispered played

Rained

Shouted

Score J ∕ 5.

4 Stress

Underline the stressed syllable in each item. (Score half a mark per item.)

Telephone remember cafeteria photographer’s a policeman a postcard a paper plate American somebody a green coffee cup Score J /5

Total score ∕ 30

Additional review task using dialogues from Units 23-28

Unit

23

24

25

26

27

28

Target sound

∕p∕

∕b∕

∕t∕

∕d∕

∕k∕

∕g∕

Pen

Baby

Table

Door

Key

Girl

From the above table, choose any target sounds that you had difficulty with.

1 Listen again to the dialogue in that unit, listening for the target sound.

2 Circle the target sound in any words in the dialogue.

3 Listen to the dialogue again and check your answers.

4 Check your answers in the key.

5 Listen to the dialogue again, listening for the target sound.

6 Read the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the CD.

You can also use this review task as a quick self-test, by doing steps 2 and 4 only.

∕s∕ sun

C creaming! What’s upsetting you?

……. . ter. She takes my books out of my

— a and puts them somewhere else, S ∙.ell her to stop it.

A: course, that’s the answer… but it’s о ∙ imple. She makes me so cross!

Aid You speak to her?

Et sound ∕s∕

To make the target sound ∕s∕, touch your top teeth with the sides of your tongue. Put the tip of your tongue forward to nearly touch the roof of your mouth. Don’t use your voice. Listen and repeat: ∕s∕.

— kj∏d∕s∕

Пл

∕s∕

Sue

Bus

Ft

That Sue was amazing.

I heard a bus.

C

Piece

It’s pronounced /si:/.

I want the big piece.

■ ⅛

Sip

Price

Sip it slowly.

What’s the price?

A Listen and repeat the words.

B Listen to the sentences.

C Sentence stress

The most important words for the speaker’s meaning are strongly stressed. Guess which two words will be strongly stressed in each sentence above. Then listen to the sentences again and Underline the sentence stress.

EXAMPLE 1 want the Big piece, d Listen and repeat the sentences.

3 Dialogue

A First practise the target sound ∕s∕ in some of the words from the dialogue below. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Sam Sue sand a sum of money Saturday sailing possible seaside

∕s∕ in consonant clusters

Let’s that’s it’s six just sleep spend stay star Smith outside instead sweetie swimming sensible smallest skiing exciting expensive cheapskate*

* a person who only spends the smallest amount of money Notice how ∕s∕ sounds join together. let’s_stay Six_Star let’s_sleep

C23 b First just listen to the dialogue without looking at your book, paying particular attention to the target sound.

It’s expensive

SAM: Let’s go to the seaside on Saturday, sweetie.

SUE: Yes! Lets go sailing and water-skiing. That’s exciting.

SAM: It’s expensive, sweetie. Let’s just sit in the sun and go swimming instead.

SUE: Let’s stay in the Six Star Hotel and spend Sunday there too.

SAM: Be sensible, Sue. It’s too expensive. Let’s sleep outside instead.

SUE: Sleep on the sand? You never want to spend more than the smallest
possible sum of money, Sam Smith — you’re such a cheapskate!

C Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 ∕s∕ in consonant dusters

C24 a Use the prompts below to make sentences about Sam, Simon, Lucas, Sarah, Chris and Chrissie. Listen and respond, like the example. EXAMPLE I hate hats. Response: Sam hates hats too.

Sam Simon Lucas Sarah Chris Chrissie

1 I hate hats.

2 I like cats.

3 I get headaches.

1

4 I drink milkshakes.

5 I take good photographs.

6 I eat chocolate biscuits.

7 I laugh at jokes.

8 I want some interesting books.

Z

B Joining ∕s∕ sounds

Find the correct ending to these sentences and practise joining the ∕s∕ sounds as in the example.

EXAiMPLE Chrissssspeaksssslowly.

1

Chris——

SSS

Silently.

2

In winter let’s∖

SSS

Such good photographs.

3

Sam takes ∖

SSS

Such a cheapskate?

4

Sarah laughs

X SSS _

__ speaks slowly.

5

In summer let’s

SSS

Ski in the snow.

6

Sue likes

SSS

Sail into the sunset.

I

Lucas

SSS

Some cats.

8

Is Chris

SSS

Sends lots of text messages.

Listen to check and repeat.

C Read aloud. Practise the target sound in consonant clusters.

The smile of a snake

She speaks slowly, and eats special, expensive chocolates. As she steps upstairs, her long skirt sweeps over her silver slippers. She is small and smart and sweet-smelling. Her skin is like snow. ‘You have stolen my heart!’ I once said stupidly, and she smiled. But when she smiled, she smiled the smile of a snake.

I∏g

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕s∕.

IlO

∕z∕ ZOO

— It looks so easy, doesn’t it? C

— It does. But it isn’t.

— Look at those eyes. They’re like ice.

— He always draws the bodies so well, doesn’t he? Look at the arms… the legs… those hands.

— He’s such an amazing artist.

— One of these days… Γm going to buy one of his paintings.

Target sound ∕z∕

Сгьа a First practise the sound ∕s∕ (see page 107). Listen and repeat.

C26t> B Use your voice to make the target sound ∕z∕. Listen and repeat.

(2⅛ c Listen and repeat both sounds together, ∕s∕ is unvoiced, ∕z∕ is voiced.

Pairs

Sound 1

∕s∕

Sue

That Sue was amazing.

Sound 2

∕z∕

Zoo

That zoo was amazing.

Sip

Sip it slowly.

Zip

Zip it slowly.

Bus

I heard a bus.

Buzz

I heard a buzz.

Piece

Want the big piece.

Peas

I want the big peas.

Price

What’s the price?

Prize

What’s the prize?

C

It’s pronounced /si:/.

Z

It’s pronounced /zi:/.

(ft ~ z □air words

— a Listen and repeat the words.

B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕s∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕z∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 2, 1, 1, 1, 2

■> — pair sentences

C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

D Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for /s/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕z∕ (sound 2).

E Sentence stress

Look at this pattern of strong and weak stresses in the first set of minimal pair sentences.

That Sue was amazing. That Zoo was amazing, oθooθo

Listen to the minimal pair sentences again while looking at the patterns

And notice how the weak stresses are quieter and quieter.

Pair 1: oθooθo Pair 2: ooOO Pair 3: OoOo

Pair 4: oθoθ Pair 5: oooOO Pair 6: OoO

F Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) bus

B) buzz

2 a) sip

B) zip

3 a) price

B) prize

4 a) pence

B) pens

5 a) police

B) please

6 a) Sackville

B) Zackville

. z □gue

A First practise the target sound ∕z∕ in words from the dialogue, plus others. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

/s/ and ∕z∕ sounds

The letter ‘s’ is usually pronounced /s/ after an unvoiced sound, and ∕z∕ after a voiced sound.

/s/ after an unvoiced sound

Izl after a voiced s

Ound

Plurals

Snakes sacks units artists zips

Animals parcels legs

Arms

3rd person singular

Makes thinks wants repeats

Smells contains

Draws

,s what’s it’s think’s

Something’s Susan’s

Joining /s/ and ∕z∕ sounds

Notice that if the two sounds are different, we say the second one more strongly.

Yes,~Zena. (sz} This parcel Contains six mice. (z_s) this_sack (s — does Susan (z_s)

, Say these words that have two /s/ or ∕z∕ sounds. Which sounds are the∖:

EXAMPLE Mrs(∕s∕∕z∕)

1 smells 6 surprising

2 parcels 7 Lazarus

3 something’s 8 sounds

4 boxes 9 sacks

5 Susan 10 zoos

C30 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the /s/ and ∕z∕ sounds. Then practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare you production of those sounds with the recording.

Surprises in the post office

(Zena and Susan work at the post office. They are busy sorting parcels. It’s Susan’s first day.) SUSAN: This parcel smells, Mrs Lazarus.

ZENA: Call me Zena, Susan.

SUSAN: Yes… Zena… Something’s written on it. What does it say?

ZENA: It says: ‘This parcel contains six mice’.

SUSAN: Aw! Isn’t that awful, Zena! Poor animals!

ZENA: And listen, Susan! What’s in this sack?

SUSAN: It’s making a strange hissing noise.

SACK: (hisses) Sssssssssssssssss!

SUSAN: Zena! It’s a sack of snakes!

ZENA: So it is! … And what do you think’s in this box, Susan?

SUSAN: It’s making a buzzing sound.

BOX: (buzzes) Izzzzzzzzzzzzzzz]

SUSAN: Those are bees!

ZENA: A parcel of mice.. and a sack of snakes. . and a box of bees. What : you think about this, Susan, on your first day in the parcels office? Isn ’ surprising?

SUSAN: Amazing! This isn’t a post office. It’s a zoo.

:nant clusters

A z/ in consonant clusters

Use the prompts below to make sentences about Ms Mills, Mr Suzuki, Mrs Moses and Miss Jones. Listen and respond, like the example. EXAMPLE I love dogs. Response: Mr Suzuki loves dogs too.

Ms Mills Mr Suzuki Mrs Moses Miss Jones

1

I love dogs.

Z

2

I climb mountains.

Z

3

I have six cousins.

Z

4

I listen to jazz records.

Z

5

1 read magazines.

Z

6

I always lose things.

Z

7

I buy expensive clothes.

Z

8

I have loads of friends.

Z

9

1 prepare horrible meals.

Z

10

I always remember bad dreams.

Z

(Note: The following titles are only used with a family name: Mr /mista/ for men and Ms ∕mιz∕ for women. Mrs ∕mιsιz∕ is also used for married women, and Miss ∕mιs∕ for unmarried women.)

H Consonant clusters: occupations, jobs, careers Match the sentence halves together. EXAMPLE A horse trainer trains horses.

1

A horse trainer —

A

Grows only roses.

2

An engineer ∖

B

Kisses babies.

3

A renovator ∖

C

Fishes.

4

A housekeeper ∖

D

Designs garages.

5

A gardener

∖. e

Sews other clothes besides dresses.

6

A prize giver

^"f

Trains horses.

7

A wage clerk

G

Trims hedges.

8

A rose grower

H

Sometimes washes clothes.

9

A garage designer

I

Gives prizes.

10

A fisherman

J

Builds bridges.

11

A politician

К

Modernises houses.

12

A dressmaker

1

Pays wages.

Check your answers in the key. Then read the answers aloud. Finally, cover the second half of the sentences and try to remember them, while still being careful with the clusters.

∩g

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what ∖ ou noticed about how to spell the sound ∕z∕.

— She shouldn’t be wearing such a shabby skirt at work, should she?

— She certainly shouldn’t.

-1 do wish she wouldn’t.

— Shall I Tell her?

-… um… er… Γm not sure if you should…

Target sound /JV

C32a a First practise the sound ∕s∕ (see page 107). Listen and repeat.

C32b b Then put the tip of your tongue back a little to make the unvoiced target sound ∕f∕. Listen and repeat.

C32r c Listen and repeat both sounds together. Both are unvoiced: ∕s∕ and ∕J7.

2 Minimal pairs

Sound 1

∕s∕

C

C is third.

Sue

I like Sue’s.

Sip

Sip it carefully.

Sound 2

∕J^∕

She

She is third.

Shoe

I like shoes.

Ship

Ship it carefully.

Ass

Look at that ass.

Ash

Look at that ash.

Sew

He won’t sew it.

Show

He won’t show it.

Puss

‘Puss!’ he shouted.

Push

‘Push!’ he shouted.

^∣mal pair words

С зза a Listen and repeat the words.

¾ b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕s∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕J∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 1,2, 1,2,1

∕’ nimal pair sentences

‘ 34a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

C34b d Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕s∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕J^∕ (sound 2).

C34a e Sentence stress

First try to guess which two words in each of the minimal pair sentences will be strongly stressed. Then listen, and mark where the intonation begins to go down on the most strongly stressed word (on page 114). EXAMPLE Ship it CareFully.

Г ‘,r, f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) Sue’s

B)shoes

2 a) ass

B) ash

3 a) puss

B) push

4 a) sack

B) shack

5 a) seats

B) sheets

6 a) save

B)shave

3 Dialogue

ζ⅛⅜ a First practise the target sound ∕J7 in words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

Show Mr Shaw sure shop shut shall shake sheets shirts shrunk Mrs Marsh push wish shouldn’t English Swedish finished washes washing machine special demonstration

C36 B First listen to the dialogue and notice that the intonation sometimes goes up. Then read the dialogue and write a-j against the numbers 1-4 in the box below. The first one has been done as an example.

1 A_____ (five YesINo questions)

2 (one question tag where the speaker is not sure of the

Answer)

3 (three sentences which are a list of instructions about

How to do something)

4 (one unfinished statement)

116 UNIT 32 ∕J7 shoe

A special washing machine

MRS MARSH: (a) Does this shop sell WashIng machines?

MR SHAW: Yes. This is the latest washing machine.

MRS MARSH: (b) Is it SweDish?

MR SHAW: No, madam. It’s English.

MRS MARSH: (c) Could you show me how it WashEs?

MR SHAW: (d) Shall I give you a demonstration? This one is our special

Demonstration machine. It’s so simple, (e) You take some sheets and Shirts, (f) You put them in the maChine, (g) You shut this doc And you push this button.

MRS MARSH: (h) The machine shouldn’t shake like that, Should it?

MR SHAW: Washing machines always shake, madam Ah! It’s finished nov. MRS MARSH: (i) But the sheets have Shrunk, and so have the shirts.

MR SHAW: (j) Do you wish to Buy this machine, madam?

MRS MARSH: .. Γm not sure.

C36 c First check your answers by listening to the dialogue again. Then check in the key.

Practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare you production of the intonation with the recording.

4 Joining ∕f∕ sounds

A ∕J7 sounds are joined between words.

EXAMPLE English sheep

Rewrite these phrases following the example in 1.

1 shops in England English shops

2 ships made in Denmark__________

3 sheep in Scotland____________

4 shampoo from Sweden___________

5 champagne from France__________

6 sheets from Ireland

7 shirts made in Poland____________

8 shorts from Finland__________

9 sugar from Turkey___________

10 shoes made in Spain__________

C37 b Listen and check your answers.

C Read the phrases aloud, joining the ∕J∕ sounds.

EXAMPLE English_shops

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕J∕.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *