Раздел 2. ЧТЕНИЕ

2.1. ЗАДАНИЯ НА ПОНИМАНИЕ ОСНОВНОГО СОДЕРЖАНИЯ ПРОЧИТАННОГО ТЕКСТА

2.1.1. Установите соответствие тем A-H Текстам 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву

Только один раз. В Задании одна тема — лишняя.

a. musical performance
b. attractive landscape
c. perfect holidays
d. portrait of a girl
e. film for all ages
f. exciting hobby
g. colourful festival
h. interestingbook

1. This is a full-length (ninety minutes) cartoon, which is entertaining for both adults and children over six. The animation and colour are of very high quality and the story
has lots of fun and excitement. The plot is quick moving and full of surprises. There’s romance, action, comedy, music and lots of fantastic songs and dances.

2. This is a full-blooded magnificently written portrait of history’s most fascinating woman. Readers will lose themselves for hours in this richly entertaining novel full of dramatic twists and turns. From the spectacular era that bears her name comes the spellbinding story of Elizabeth I — her tragic childhood, her confrontation with Mary, Queen of Scots and her brilliant reign.

3. The young woman is shown in a “shepherdess” hat and white dress, recalling a classical chiton. Thebackground landscape, common in such paintings, seems to indicate the heroine’s closeness to nature, to the ordinary joys of life. The painter’s colour range — at times as translucent as porcelain, at others muted like mother-of-pearl — is based upon subtle plays of gray and green, light blue and pink.

4. In this picture one is struck by the artist’s absolute mastery in portraying natural details, whether the dry, sandy soil of the forest, the clear stream of water in the foreground, the yellow bark and fluffy needles of the pines, or the sense of a bright, clear, calm summer day. The artist managed to create an image familiar to anyone who has seen A Russian forest.

5. Have a good time on the most lively and exciting island in the Caribbean. Relax under a palm tree on the white sandy beaches. Swim in the clear, blue sea. Listen to the bands playing Calypso music. Or get really adventurous and go scuba diving for sunken treasure on the sea bed. Join in the many cultural celebrations we offer, for example the sugar harvest festival.

6. This event is considered the greatest attraction for visitors to the Isle of Man. No definite date can be given, but it is normally held between 5th and 15th July. The Pageant begins at about 8 p. m. First we are given a glimpse of village life in Celtic times. Then suddenly Viking long ships appear and then there are scenes of war. Then Celts and Vikings unite, and the Manx nation is born. The actual Pageant is followed by a grand torchlight procession and firework display.

7. Do you like Latin American dancing? Do you want to dance like you see in the films and on the stage? Do you want to feel the rhythm of the music in your body and in your soul? Do you want to meet other people who have a love for the same music as you? If you have answered “Yes” to any of these questions, join our Latin dance classes on Thursday night between seven and ten. All are welcome.

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2.1.2. Установите соответствие между заголовками A-H И текстами 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В задании один заголовок — лишний.

A.

Supercomputer

E.

Intelligent machines in our life

B.

Human intelligence test

F.

Computer intelligence test

C.

Man against computer

G.

Computers change human brains

D.

Robotic industry

H.

Electronic film stars

1. Artificial intelligence is the art of making machines that are able to ‘think’. We often don’t notice it, but artificial intelligence is all around us. It is present in computer games, in the cruise control in our cars and the servers that direct our e-mail. Some scientists believe that the most powerful computers could have the power of the human brain. Machines have always been excellent at tasks like calculation. But now they are better than humans in many spheres, from chess to mixing music.

2. The world’s most powerful computer is ASCI Purple, made by IBM in 2004. It can carry out 100 trillion operations per second and has the size of two basketball courts. A computer with double power is expected in the next two years. A spokesman for IBM said that ASCI Purple is near the power of the human brain. But some scientists believe our brains can carry out almost 10,000 trillion operations per second.

3. The possible dangers of intelligent machines became the stories of many science fiction films. In The Terminator (1984), a computer network uses nuclear weapons against the human race in order to rule the world. This network then makes intelligent robots called ‘Terminators’ which it programs to kill all the humans. In The Matrix (1999) and The Matrix Reloaded (2003), a machine dominates humanity, using people as batteries to power itself.

4. In 1997, then the world chess champion Garry Kasparov played against IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer — and lost. After six games, the world-famous Kasparov lost 2.5 to 3.5 to the computer. In February 2003, Kasparov restored human reputation by finishing equal against the Israeli — built supercomputer Deep Junior. Kasparov ended the game with the score 2-2 against US company X3D Technologies’ supercomputer X3D Fritz in November 2003, proving that the human brain can keep up with the latest developments in computing (at least in chess).

5. There are a number of different methods which try to measure intelligence, the most famous of which is perhaps the IQ, or ‘Intelligence Quotient’ test. This test was first used in early 20th century Paris. The modern day IQ test measures a variety of different types of ability such as memory for words and figures and others. Whether IQ tests actually test general intelligence is disputable. Some argue that they just show how good the individual is at IQ tests!

6. Analysis shows that human intelligence is changing. We are gaining abilities in some areas of intelligence, while losing them in others, such as memory. So this generation may not remember the great number of poems, their abilities are greater in other areas. It has been discovered that wide use of video games improves reaction time. But we could only dream of computing without calculators as fast as our grandparents did.

7. In 1950 mathematician Alan Turing invented a test to check machine intelligence. In the Turing Test, two people (A and B) sit in a closed room, a third person (C), who asks questions, sits outside. Person A tries to answer the questions so that person C doesn’t guess who they are: men or women, while

Person В tries to help him (C) in their identification. Turing suggested a machine take the place of person A. If the machine fooled the human, it was likely to be intelligent.

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2.1.3. Установите соответствие тем A-H Текстам 1-7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву только один раз. В Задании одна тема — лишняя.

A.

A taste of everything

E.

Activities for the adventurous and hardy

B.

Shop till you drop

F.

On the crossroads of religions

C.

City’s tourist attractions

G.

For the body, mind and soul

D.

Ancient traditions live on

H.

From the high peaks to the deep seas

1. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument, or Monas, is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.

2. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.

3. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.

4. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste of Indonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.

5. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter­gathering culture.

6. Whether you are a serious spender or half-hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.

7. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hili’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by

The Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.

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2.1.4. Установите соответствие между заголовками А—H И текстами 1 7, Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Исполь­зуйте каждую букву только один раз. В Задании один заголо­вок — лишний.

A.

Chocolate mania

E.

Friend or enemy

B.

History of chocolate

F.

Safe sweetness

C.

Love of sweet from your father

G.

Help to dentists

D.

Balanced diet

H.

Problems with weight

1. Chocolate is made from the seeds of the tree Theobroma cacao. The ancient Aztecs used the beans of the cacao tree as a form of money. The Aztecs discovered that by crushing the beans into a paste and adding spices, they could make a refreshing and nourishing drink. This drink was very bitter, not like our chocolate drinks today. 16th century European explorers brought the drink back from their travels, added sugar, and soon it was popular as an expensive luxury.

2. You can receive a ‘sweet tooth’ from your parents. Recent study at New York University suggests there is a genetic reason why some people prefer sugary foods. The study was based on two groups of mice. The parents of the first group were given sweetened water and the parents of the second — unsweetened water. The team found the gene that was different in the two groups of mice and then looked for similar genetic chains in humans.

3. All modern chocolate products have large amounts of sugar, i a fact which may partly explain why it becomes a sort of drug

For some people. An ability to recognize sweet things, and a tendency to like them was very useful for our forefathers. Such a genetic quality made prehistoric humans look for

Energy-rich, healthy and tasty food such as fruit, and helped them avoid bitter-tasting poisonous plants.

4. Like other sweet food, chocolate helps endorphins, natural hormones, that give us the feelings of pleasure and well­being, to appear in our body. Ghocolate also makes us feel good by reacting with our brains. Scientists say that some people may develop chocoholism — a dependency on chocolate. So it’s just possible that, with every bar of chocolate, your brain changes step by step in order to make you love chocolate more and more!

5. Back in the 17th and 18th centuries, many scientific works were written explaining the advantages of^chocolate for medicine, and today it’s a regular food in army rations. Chocolate could help prevent tooth decay, according to scientists at Japan’s Osaka University. The cocoa beans from which chocolate is made have an antibacterial agent that fights tooth decay. These parts of the beans are not usually used in chocolate production, but in future they could be added back in to chocolate to make it friendly for teeth.

6. Californian scientist Professor Carl Keen and his team have suggested that chocolate might help fight heart disease. They say that it contains chemicals called flavinoids, which thin the blood. Researchers at Harvard University have carried out experiments that suggest that if you eat chocolate three times a month you will live almost a year longer than those who don’t do it. But it’s not all good news — chocolate has much fat, which means that eating too much of it may lead to obesity.

7. Being very fat, or obese, is linked to many health problems including heart disease and diabetes. The causes of obesity are not yet fully understood. Both genes and the environment play a role. The recent growth of the number of fat people seems to be linked to environmental factors: people are much less active nowadays, fatty and sugary foods like chocolate are cheap, people eat larger portions of food, and the calories per person have increased.

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2.1.5. Установите соответствие тем А—H Текстам 1 7. Занесите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую букву

Только один раз. В задании одна тема — лишняя.

A.

Types of mass media

E.

Air in danger

B.

World in danger

F.

World language

C.

Danger of smoking

G.

Wonderful trip

D.

English in schools

H.

Types of travelling

1. English is very popular nowadays. It’s the language of computers, science, business, sport and politics. English is an amazing language, the language of great literature. Half of the world’s scientific literature is published in English. Nearly half of the world’s business deals in Europe are conducted in English. It’s the language of sports and glamour, being the official language of the Olympic Games and the Miss Universe Competition. English is the official voice of the air and the sea.

2. Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. Some travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It’s always interesting to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to travel to a big city while city-dwellers usually prefer spending a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe.

3. Global warming is the term used to describe the relatively dramatic rise in the world’s average temperature during the 20th century. According to some environmentalists, global warming is a result of the industrial revolution and that if it continues, it will destroy civilization as we know it. Global warming is a problem, and people must take any steps they can in order to prevent it.

4. Speaking English gives people many privileges in society, enabling them to communicate successfully with those who don’t know your mother-tongue. In order to possess these privileges school teachers and methodologists propose to introduce six hours of learning English a week for all Russian

Schools and introduce this subject from the first year in primary schools. Learning English should become more intensive to make Russian citizens more communicative.

5. Air pollution is a very serious problem in the world. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening — it equals smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union. Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet.

6. The press, radio, television and Internet are various types of mass media that keep people informed on the topical issues of the day. The mass media do much to excite an interest in every aspect of life and play an important role in reflecting the life of society. The mass media draw the public attention to the most serious political, economic, social and ecological problems.

7. Last year my brother and I went to Turkey. This trip left the best impression on me. We took advantage of the excellent weather and went on different tours, for example, rafting. We took ourselves by a raft and a kayak through the picturesque mountainous region of Southern Turkey. Besides, we found new places, saw impressive sights and got acquainted with new people.

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2.2. ЗАДАНИЯ НА ПОНИМАНИЕ СТРУКТУРНО-СМЫСЛОВЫХ СВЯЗЕЙ ПРОЧИТАННОГО ТЕКСТА

2.2.1. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1-6 Частя­ми предложений, обозначенными буквами A-G. Одна из час­тей в списке A-G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

Before the invention of the internal combustion engine, the only successful human flights were in balloons filled with hot air or a gas like hydrogen which is “lighter than air”. But balloons cannot

Be properly controlled in flight 1__________________________ . Not

Until man had invented a powered, “heavier than air” machine could he claim to have conquered the skies. Steam-engines were often tried

In the nineteenth century, but they were much too heavy in relation to the power they produced. It was the lighter, more compact petrol engine 2____________ .

WilbUr and Orville Wright were bicycle-makers from Dayton in the USA. In 1903, after carefully studying the problems of flight, they fitted a wooden glider with a twelve horsepower petrol engine and two propellers driven by bicycle chains. On a cold morning in December at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, they became the first men to fly a “heavier than air” machine.

The British were slow to respond to the new invention. Five

Years went by 3__________________________ . In 1909, when the

“Daily Mail” offered £1000 for the first man to fly the Channel, it was won by a Frenchman, Louis Bleroits. However, when the First World war broke out, five years later, the vast majority of the population had not yet seen an aeroplane. The military possibilities

Of aircraft were quickly realized, 4____________________________ .

For the first time planes were mass-produced from standard parts.

The extent of the progress made during the war was shown in 1919, when two Royal Air Force officers, John Aclock and Arthur Whitten-Brown, made the first flight across the Atlantic. They covered 1890 miles from Newfoundland to Ireland at an average speed of 118 m. p.h., battling all the way against fog, ice and storms. At one point, Brown had to climb on the wings to hack away ice with a knife. In August of the same year, the world’s first

Daily air service began, 5___________________________ . By 1923

Croydon Airport, in Surrey, was handling up to thirty cross-chanel flights a day. A high standard of safety and reliability was achieved, 6________________ .

A. carrying goods and passengers between London and Paris

B. so the war led to a rapid development of aviation

C. that lasted only fifty-nine seconds

D. that held the key to success

E. although the journey was slow and bumpy

F. before the first powered flight was made in England

G. because they are at the mercy of the wind and air-currents

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2.2.2. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1-6 Час тями предложений, обозначенными буквами A-Gt Одна из час­Тей в списке A-G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

HEALTHY SCHOOL MEALS

Children at Southdown Infants School in Bath enjoy tasty homemade meals such as roast turkey with fresh vegetables,

Chicken, salad and fresh fruit for pudding. Vegetables are 1__________

__________________ . Instead of crisps, chocolate and sweets, the

School canteen serves organic carrots, dried fruit and fresh seasonal fruit in bags for 10p, 2 .

Southdown’s healthy eating initiative began four years ago with the start of a breakfast club.

Now Ms Culley, the head teacher of the school, says that the teachers very clearly see the link between diet and concentration. “Children’s

Concentration and behaviour 3_________________________ .” The

Teachers would also like to give the children the experience of eating together. It turned out that some children weren’t used to that.

Pupils are also encouraged to find out more about where their food comes from by 4 .

Parents are also involved and are invited in to try school dinners on special occasions, 5 .

The efforts of staff, pupils and parents to create a healthy eating

Environment were recognized earlier this month 6___________

__________ the Best School Dinner award.

Ms Culley said: uWe are happy to win this award. Healthy eating is at the centre of everything we do. It’s really rewarding to see so many Childremenjoy real food.”

A. such as Easter and Christmas

B. visiting a local farm

C. local, fresh and organic whet∙e possible

D. provide good quality food

E. definitely improve after a good meal

F. and about IOO bags are sold each day

G. when the school was awarded

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2.2.3. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1—6 Частя­ми предложений A-Gt Одна из частей в списке A-G — лишняя. Перенесите ответы в таблицу.

DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?

When I arrived in England I thought I knew English. After Γd been here an hour I realized that I did not understand one word. In the first week I picked up a tolerable working knowledge of the language and the next seven years convinced me gradually but thoroughly

That 11________________________ , let alone perfectly. This is sad.

My only consolation being that nobody speaks English perfectly.

Remember that those five hundred words an average Englishman

Uses are 2_________________________ . You may learn another

Five hundred and another five thousand and yet another fifty thousand and still you may come across a further fifty thousand 3________________________ .

If you live here long enough you will find out to your greatest amazement that the adjective Nice is not the only adjective the

Language possesses, in spite of the fact that 4____________________ .

You can say that the weather is nice, a restaurant is nice, Mr. Soandso is nice, Mrs. Soandso’s clothes are nice, you had a nice time, 5________________________ .

Then you have to decide on your accent. The easiest way to give the impression of having a good accent or no foreign accent at all is to hold an unlit pipe in your mouth, to mutter between your teeth and finish all your sentences with the question: “isn’t it?” People will not understand much, but they are accustomed to that and they will get a 6 .

A. whatever it costs

B. most excellent impression

C. you have never heard of before, and nobody else either

D. in the first three years you do not need to learn or use any other adjectives

E. would never know it really well

F. far from being the whole vocabulary of the language

G. and all this will be correct

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2.2.4. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 1 6 Частя­ми предложений, обозначенными буквами А —G. Одна из частей в списке А—G — лишняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соот­ветствующую часть предложения, в таблицу.

WALKING IS NOT ENOUGH ТО KEEP FIT

Walking may not be enough on its own to produce significant health benefits, research suggests. Ateamfrom Canada’s University of Alberta compared a 10,000-step exercise programme with a more traditional fitness regime of moderate intensity. Researchers found

Improvements 1__________________________ were significantly

Higher in the second group. They told an American College of

Sports Medicine meeting that gentle exercise was 2_______________

____________ . In total 128 people took 3______________________

____ . The researchers assessed influence on fitness by measuring

Blood pressure and lung capacity. They found out the 10,000-step programme did help to get people motivated — and was an excellent

Way to start 4__________________________ . But to increase the

Effectiveness, some intensity must be added to their exercise. “Across your day, while you are achieving those 10,000 steps, take 200 to 400 of them at a faster pace. You’ve got to do more than light exercise and include regular moderate activity, and don’t be shy to have an occasional period of time at an energetic level.” The

Researchers were concerned there was too much focus 5_____________

____________ , rather than on itsjntensity.

Professor Stuart Biddle, an expert in exercise science at the University of Loughborough, said it was possible that the current guidelines on how much exercise to take were set too low. “However,

You have got to find 6________________________ . The harder you

Make it, the fewer people will actually do it.” Professor Biddle said there was no doubt that energetic exercise was the way to get fit, but volume rather than intensity might be more useful in tackling issues such as obesity.

A. part in the project

B. taking exercise

C. gave marked health benefits

D. in fitness levels

E. on simply getting people to take exercise

F. not enough to get fit

G. a compromise between physiology and psychology

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2.2.5. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски 16 Час­тями предложений, обозначенными буквами А—G. Одна из час­тей в списке А—G — лищняя. Занесите букву, обозначающую соответствующую часть предложения, в таблицу,

DOUBLE-DECKER BUS

A double-decker bus is a bus that has two levels. While double — decker long-distance buses are in widespread use around the world,

1_______________________ . Double-decker buses are popular in

Some European cities and in some parts of Asia, usually in former British colonies. Many towns around the world have a few that specialize in short sight-seeing tours for tourists because, as Wil­liam Gladstone observed, “the way to see London is from the top of a ‘bus’”.

Double-decker buses are taller than other buses. They are exten­sively used in the United Kingdom, 2 ,

Removed from normal service in December 2005 — they still operate on heritage routes. Elsewhere in Europe, double-deckers are used throughout the Dublin Bus network in Ireland, where they are making a comeback on Dublin’s outer suburban routes and also the streets of Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford. They are a com­mon sight in Berlin, where the BVG makes extensive use of them. Double-decker long-distance coaches are also in widespread use throughout Europe.

Most buses in Hong Kong and about half in Singapore are double-deckers as well. The only areas in North America that

3_______________________ are the western Canadian province

Of British Columbia and the United States city of Las Vegas. They are currently being tested in Ottawa on the express routes. The city of Davis, California, in the United States uses vintage double — decker buses for public transport. Davis, California is also home to the first vintage double-decker bus converted from diesel gasoline to run on CNG. The city of Victoria, BC, the city of Vancouver, British

Columbia, and a couple of others use Dennis Tridents. A few are also used as tour buses, especially in New York. Double-deckers are have also been used in Mumbai since 1937.

In Brazil, 4_________________________ , some companies use

Double-decker buses. Double-deckers are not a good option for use outside the towns (most roads in Brazil are in very poor condition), and 5_______________ .

Double-decker buses are in widespread use in India in many of

The major cities. Some double-decker buses β____________________

________ , with no roof and shallow sides. These are popular for

Sightseeing tours.

A. Double-deckers are adored by thousands of tourists

B. Use double-decker buses for public transport

C. Double-decker city buses are less common

D. Where perhaps the most famous was the London Routemaster

E. Their use is being discouraged by transportation authorities

F. Have an open upper deck

G. Where buses are sometimes the Onlyinterstate transport

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2.3. ЗАДАНИЯ НА ПОЛНОЕ И ТОЧНОЕ ПОНИМАНИЕ ИНФОРМАЦИИ В ПРОЧИТАННОМ ТЕКСТЕ

2.3.1. Прочитайте рассказ и выполните задания А15-А21, обводя цифру Ii 2,3 Или 4, Соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

ABBY’S TIDY DRAWER

One Saturday morning, Abby’s Mum came upstairs to see Abby in her bedroom. There was a big mess on the floor and Abby sat in the middle of it all reading a book.

“What a mess,” Mum said. “You need to have a clear up in here. Because things get broken or lost when they’re all willy-nilly like this. Come on, have a tidy up now.”

“But Γm very busy,” Abby argued, “and it’s boring doing it on my own. Can’t you help me?”

“No I can’t, I’m busy too. But I’ll give you extra pocket money if you do a good job.”

When Mum came back later all the toys and clothes and books had disappeared.

“I’m impressed,” said Mum. “But I’ll inspect it properly later.”

“It was easy,” said Abby. “Can I have my extra pocket money now?”

“All right. Get it out of my change purse. It’s in the kitchen tidy drawer.”

In the kitchen, Abby went over to the dresser and pulled open the tidy drawer. She hunted for the purse.

“It must be somewhere at the bottom,” Mum said. “Let’s have a proper look.”

She pulled the drawer out and carried it over to the table. Abby looked inside. There were lots of boring things like staplers and string, but there were lots of interesting things as well.

“What’s this?” Abby asked, holding up a plastic bottle full of red liquid.

“Fake blood, from a Halloween party years ago. Your Dad and I t∞k you to that, dressed up as ababy vampire. You were really scary.”

Abby carried on looking through the drawer. She found some vampire teeth, white face paint, plastic witch nails and hair gel. Mum pulled out a glittery hair band. It had springs with wobbly balls on the top that flashed disco colours! Abby found some sparkly hair elastics to match the hair band. She made her Mum put lots of little bunches all over her head so she looked really silly.

“I remember this,” Abby said as she pulled out a plastic bag. “This is from my pirate party.” Inside there was a black, false moustache and some big gold earrings.

“Come here,” Mum said and smeared white face paint all over Abby’s face. She dribbled the fake blood so it looked as if it was coming out of Abby’s eyes and mouth. She put gel all over Abby’s hair and made it stand up into weird, pointy shapes. Abby put in the vampire teeth and slipped on the witch fingers. She made scary noises at Wow-Wow, the cat. He ignored her and carried on washing himself on the seat next to her.

Abby came to sit on her Mum’s knee.

“It’s fun doing this together,” she said.

“Maybe. But we still haven’t found the change purse.”

“Well, you know things will get lost, or broken, when they’re all willy-nilly.”

“You cheeky monkey!” Mum laughed. “But what shall I do with it all?”

“I know, it’s easy,” Abby said and began to remove everything off the table into her arms. She put it all back in the kitchen drawer.

Mum looked at her suspiciously.

“Let’s go and inspect your bedroom, shall we?”

Abby followed her upstairs and into her bedroom. Wow-Wow was sitting in front of her fish tank looking hungrily at the goldfish. He dashed under the bed when he saw Mum and Abby. Mum kneeled down and lifted the bed cover to get him out. Underneath were heaps of Abby’s toys, books, tapes, clothes and shoes, empty plastic cups, wrappers and a half-eaten sandwich on a plate.

“Abby! What’s all this?”

“It’s my tidy drawer,” Abby said. She wrapped her arms around her Mum and gave her a kiss. “Let’s sort this one out together now.”

A15. When Mum came to Abby’s room she saw

1) her daughter reading at her table.

2) the cat looking at the fish.

3) a terrible mess all over the place.

4) Abby dressed up as a vampire.

A16. Abby agreed to tidy up her room because Mother

1) promised to take her to the Halloween party.

2) offered to give her extra pocket money.

3) promisedtohelpher.

4) said that she would punish her.

A17. Where did Abby find many interesting things?

1) InherMotherjSchangepurse.

2) Underherbed.

3) Onthekitchentable.

4) In the tidy drawer in the kitchen.

A18. Abby’s parents used most of the interesting things

1) when they dressed themselves up for Halloween parties.

2) as presents for Halloween parties.

3) to dress her up for different parties.

4) when they wanted to play tricks on Abby.

A19. Abby put on the vampire teeth, witch nails and other things from the tidy drawer because

1) she wanted to scare the cat.

2) she was going to a Halloween party that evening.

3) SheenjoyeddressingupwithherMother.

4) she had to dress up for a pirate party.

A20. Abby’s Mother decided to inspect Abby’s bedroom

1) after she had seen Abby tidy up the kitchen table.

2) because she had promised she would do that.

3) before Father came home from work.

4) when they heard some strange noise from it.

A21. When Abby’s Mother looked under her daughter’s bed she saw

1) the cat eating a sandwich.

2) the tidy drawer from the kitchen.

3) her change purse.

4) all the Abby’s things.

2.3.2. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания А15-А21, обводя цифру 1,2, 3 Или 4, Соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP — AN IMPOSSIBLE DREAM?

Tonight, do yourself afavor. Shut off the TV, log off the Internet and unplug the phone. Relax, take a bath, maybe sip some herbal tea. Then move into the bedroom. Set your alarm clock for a time no less than eight hours in the future, fluff up your pillows and lay your head down for a peaceful night of restorative shut-eye. That’s what American doctors advise.

American sleep experts are sounding an alarm over America’s sleep deficit. They say Americans are a Somnambulant nation, stumbling groggily through their waking hours for lack of sufficient sleep. They are working longer days — and, increasingly, nights — and they are playing longer, too, as TV and the Internet expand the range of round — the-clock entertainment options. By some estimates, Americans are sleeping as much as an hour and a half less per night than they did at the turn of the century — and the problem is likely to get worse.

The health repercussions of sleep deprivation are not well understood, but sleep researchers point to ills ranging from heart problems to depression. In a famous experiment conducted at the University of Chicago in 1988, rats kept from sleeping died after two and a half weeks. People are not likely to drop dead in the same way, but sleep deprivation may cost them their lives indirectly, when an exhausted doctor prescribes the wrong dosage or a sleepy driver weaves into someone’s lane.

What irritates sleep experts most is the fact that much sleep deprivation is voluntary. “People have regarded sleep as a commodity that they could shortchange,” says one of them. “It’s been considered a mark of very hard work and upward mobility to get very little sleep. It’s a macho attitude.” Slumber scientists hope that attitude will change. They say people have learned to modify their behavior in terms of lowering their cholesterol and increasing exercise. Doctors also think people need to be educated that allowing enough time for sleep and taking strategic naps are the most reliable ways to promote alertness behind the wheel and on the job.

Well, naps would be nice, but at the moment, employers tend to frown on them. And what about the increasing numbers of people who work at night? Not only must they work while their bodies’ light-activated circadian rhythms tell them to sleep, they also find it tough to get to sleep after work. Biologists say night workers have a hard time not paying attention to the 9-to-5 day because of noises or family obligations or that’s the only time they can go to the dentist. There are not too many dentists open at midnight.

As one might imagine, companies are springing up to take advantage of sleeplessness. One of the companies makes specially designed shift-work lighting systems intended to keep workers alert around the clock. Shift-work’s theory is that bright light, delivered in a controlled fashion, can help adjust people’s biological
clocks. The company president says they are using light like a medicine. So far, such special lighting has been the province of NASA astronauts and nuclear power plant workers. He thinks that in the future, such systems may pop up in places like hospitals and 24-hour credit-card processing centers. Other researchers are experimenting with everything from welder’ s goggles (which night workers wear during the day) to human growth hormones. And, of course, there is always what doctors refer to as “therapeutic caffeine use,” but everyone is already familiar with that.

So, is a good night’s sleep an impossible dream for Americans? Maybe so.

A15. The advice of American doctors is all about

1) ways to reduce negative effect of modern technologies.

2) complex measures that ensure healthy sleep.

3) positive effect of herbal therapy.

4) the process of restoring from unexpected psychological stress.

Alβ. Americans are referred to as a “somnambulant nation” because they

1) need special help to fall asleep.

2) are sleepwalkers.

3) regularly wake up at night.

4) don’t get enough sleep to function effectively.

A17. Experiments with sleep deprivation proved that

1) it inevitably leads to death.

2) its repercussions have finally become predictable.

3) it is likely to result in cardio or nervous problems.

4) animal and human reaction are almost alike.

A18. There is a tendency to sleep less because

1) people want to look tough at any cost.

2) people think they can reduce sleeping hours without any harm.

3) people have learned to cope with less sleep just as they have learned to lower cholesterol.

4) otherwise they lose career and social opportunities.

А19. Having naps during the day would be nice, but

1) doctors do not find them effective.

2) people won’t take them voluntarily.

3) bosses are against this.

4) it is difficult to arrange.

A20. People who work at night can hardly

1) fulfill traditional family obligations.

2) consult doctors when needed.

3) socialize to their liking.

4) ever sleep without ear-plugs.

A21. The main aim of specially designed sljift-work lighting sys­tem is

1) to help people feel alert at night.

2) to provide better lightning.

3) to prevent heart diseases.

4) to stimulate human growth hormones.

2.3.3. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания A15-A21i Обводя цифру 1,2, Зили4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

Whilst travelling in 2001,1 had my first but definitely not last Go at snowboarding. Rhona and I went to the Cardona ski resort, a couple of hours from Queenstown in New Zealand. We had been staying in Queenstown for a couple of weeks and had tried a couple of the local ski resorts. They had been so popular, that there was almost no room to stay. The problem for me with this was that with so many people moving around me, my eyes were constantly re-focusing. This meant that I couldn’t see a thing! As I had never snowboarded before, we decided that it was going to be a problem. Aguy at one of the local ski rental shops recommended that we should try Cardona.

On arrival I went straight to the Ski Patrol and explained my situation. They suggested that I should wear a vest, that they supplied, with the words ‘BLIND SKIER’ on the front and back on top of my jacket. They told me that this was more for the benefit of the other skiers around me. I must admit, I wasn’t very keen to do this, but thought I would give it a try.

Once onto the slopes, I put my vest on and began to practise my limited skills. Because I have done some other board sports, i. e. skateboarding, surfing, etc., it wasn’t too hard to learn the basics. Once I was comfortable with this, I headed off for the ski lift and the big slopes. As I stood in the queue I could hear people talking about that ‘poor blind guy’. This niggled me a bit, but I decided to try to ignore it. At the top of the lift I stepped off and strapped my feet onto the board.

As we headed off I could hear more people talking about the vest. I was starting to get paranoid. Then as I gathered speed and Rhona would shout directions, I realized that the people who saw the vest were getting out of my way. Fantastic! This was better than a white stick in a crowd. We picked up speed turning left, then right, hitting a few bumps, but mainly going really well. I even managed to control the snowboard. Well, sort of control it. Before I knew it, we had zipped down a long straight slope and had come to the end of the run. The adrenaline was buzzing and I was ‘high as a kite’. What a feeling! I got back on the ski lift and headed back up. This time I was going to do the run solo!

I had memorized the slope from my first run and felt very confident. As I came off the lift, I rushed to get started. Again, I could hear people talking about me, but now it didn’t matter. The vest was a definite benefit for the novice snowboarder! I took the first stage at a steady pace, looking for my first left bend. No problems there. I found that easy enough. I was now looking for my fast approaching right bend. I missed this one completely and ended up in the safety netting at the edge of the run.

At this point, I decided I was not the world’s best snowboarder and would have to take things a little slower. As the day progressed, so did my skills. I had a great time. Even taking ‘air’ on quite a few occasions. However this was not deliberate! I was now very wary about that bend I had missed, so I started to take it a bit earlier. Unfortunately, this meant that I would leap about 2 metres into the air. And what was more surprising than being airborne, was the fact that on half a dozen occasions, (out of about 30), I landed on my feet and carried on downhill. The rest of the time I fell on my bottom. I heard some people comment on how brave ‘that blind guy’ was. Little did they know it was lack of skill rather than bravery.

We boarded at Cardona for two days and had a fantastic time. Because it is a bit of a drive away from most of the tourist places, it is not as busy as the other ski resorts. It is mostly visited by the locals and I think that says something. If you get the chance, I would definitely recommend Cardona. I would also like to thank the Ski Patrol for that great suggestion. Without the vest, I am sure there could have been some crashes, caused by me. But with the vest, everyone just got out of the way. However, I think that if I was to get a vest for myself, it would probably read “BLIND & DAFT”.

A15. The narrator and his companion decided to choose the Cardona ski resort because

1) it was a short distance from Queenstown.

2) they couldn’t find a room at other resorts.

3) somebody said that it was worth going to.

4) it was popular with snowboarders.

A16. The Ski Patrol suggested that the narrator should wear a vest in order to

1) make it easier for them to locate the narrator in case of an accident.

2) make the narrator feel more confident during his first go at snowboarding.

3) keep an eye on him on the slope.

4) prevent other people from colliding with him on the slopes.

A17. When the narrator was standing in the queue he

1) felt annoyed by people’s comments.

2) felt comfortable in his vest.

3) tried to focus his eyes on the track.

4) tried to ignore his fear.

A18. “This” in “This was better than a white stick in the crowd” refers to

1) the fact that people were getting out of the narrator’s way.

2) the narrator’s moving at a high speed down the slope.

3) the fact that Rhona was giving the narrator directions.

4) the narrator’s hearing more people talking about the vest.

A19. The narrator did the second run solo and he

1) tried to memorize all the bends.

2) failed to go round one of the bends.

3) tried not to listen to Rhona’s directions.

4) fell down and was injured.

A20. The narrator believes that his successful leaps into the air and landing on his feet were due to

1) his personal courage.

2) people’s encouragement.

3) his intensive practising.

4) pure chance.

A21. The narrator recommends the Cardona ski resort because

1) of the Ski Patrol efficient service

2) skiers are supplied with vests there.

3) it is less crowded than other places.

4) there are few crashes on the slopes.

2.3.4. Прочитайте рассказ и выполните задания A15—А21, обводя цифру 1,2f 3 Или 41 Соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

MR. STICKY

No one knew how Mr. Sticky got in the fish tank.

“He’s very small,” Mum said as she peered at the tiny water snail. “Just a black dot.”

In the morning Abby jumped out of bed and switched on the light in her fish tank.

Gerry, the fat orange goldfish, was dozing inside the stone archway. It took Abby a while to discover Mr. Sticky because he was clinging to the glass near the bottom, right next to the gravel.

At school that day she wrote about the mysterious Mr. Sticky who was so small you could mistake him for a piece of gravel. Some of the girls in her class said he seemed an ideal pet for her and kept giggling about it.

“I think he’s grown a bit,” Abby told her Mum at breakfast the next day.

CtJust as well if he’s going to be eaten up like that,” her Mum said, trying to put on her coat and eat toast at the same time. “But I don’t want him to get too huge or he won’t be cute anymore. Small things are cute aren’t they?”

“Yes they are. Now hurry up, I’m going to miss my train.”

At the weekend they cleaned out the tank. “There’s a lot of filth on the sides,” Mum said. “I’m not sure Mr. Sticky’s quite up to the job yet.”

They took the fish out and put them in a bowl while they emptied some of the water. Mr. Sticky stayed out of the way, clinging to the glass while Mum used the special ‘vacuum cleaner’ to clean the gravel. Abby cleaned the archway and the filter tube. Mum poured new water into the tank.

“Where’s Mr. Sticky?” Abby asked.

“On the side,” Mum said. She was busy concentrating on the water.

Abby looked on all sides of the tank. There was no sign of the water snail.

“He’s probably in the gravel then,” her mum said. She put the fish back in the clean water where they swam round and round, looking baffled.

That evening Abby went up to her bedroom to examine the tank. The water had settled and looked lovely and clear but there was no sign of Mr. Sticky. She went downstairs.

Her mum was in the study surrounded by papers. She looked impatient when she saw Abby in the doorway and even more impatient when she heard the bad news.

“He’ll turn up.” was all she said. “Now off to bed Abby. I’ve got masses of work to catch up on.”

Abby felt her face go hot and red. It always happened when she was furious or offended.

“You’ve poured him out, haven’t you,” she said. “You were in such a rush.”

“I have not. I was very cautious. But he is extremely small.”

“What’s wrong with being small?”

“Nothing at all. But it makes things hard to find.”

“Or notice, ” Abby said and ran from the room.

The door to the bedroom opened and Mum’s face appeared. Abby tried to ignore her but it was hard when she walked over to the bed
and sat next to her. She was holding her glasses in her hand. “These are my new pair,” she said. “Extra powerful, for snail hunting.” She smiled at Abby. Abby tried not to smile back.

“And Γve got a magnifying glass,” Abby suddenly remembered and rushed off to find it.

They sat beside each other on the floor with the tank between them and peered into the water.

WAh ha!” Mum suddenly cried. .

There, perfectly hidden against the dark stone, sat Mr. Sticky. And right next to him was another water snail, even smaller than him.

“Mrs. Sticky!” Abby breathed.

They both laughed. Then Abby put her head on her mum’s chest and smiled.

A15. Mr. Stickywas

1) a goldfish.

2) a piece of gravel.

3) a snail.

4) a turtle.

A16. Abby didn’t want Mr. Sticky to grow too big because

1) there wouldn’t be enough space in the fish tank.

2) he would eat too much.

3) he would leave a lot of dirt on the walls of the fish tank.

4) she found small things to be very pretty.

A17. When helping her mother to clean out the tank Abby

1) Polishedthewallsofthetank.

2) Usedavacuumcleaner.

3) poured fresh water into the tank.

4) cleaned the filter tube of the fish tank.

A18. Abby came to her mother’s study

1) to tell her that Mr. Sticky hadn’t turned up.

2) when she had found Mr. and Mrs. Sticky.

3) because she didn’t want to Go to bed,

4) to say goodnight.

A19. Abby was angry with her Mum because

1) mother ignored her.

2) mother didn’t like Mr. Sticky.

3) she thought that her mother had poured out Mr. Sticky.

4) motherwas very strict.

A20. Mother came to Abby’s room to look for Mr. Sticky with

1) her new glasses.

2) a filter tube.

3) a magnifying glass.

4) a vacuumcleaner.

A21. Abby felt happy and laughed because

1) mother came to help her look for Mr. Sticky.

2) they found Mr. Sticky in the fish tank.

3) the water in the fish tank was very clear and clean.

4) her mother was trying to make her laugh.

2.3.5. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания A15—А21, обводя цифру 1,2, Зили4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа,

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