DIAGNOSTIC TESTS

All students should do Test A.

Test B requires the help of a teacher, native speaker or near-native speaker of English.

The tests are not to give you a mark. They may help you to find out which sounds and other aspects of English pronunciation could be the most difficult for you. You should also check this in the List of likely errors on the website: Http://www. cambridge. org/elt/elt_projectpage. asp? id=2500905.

TESTA

Section 1 Sound discrimination

A2 Do not stop the recording or repeat. In each item you will hear two words. Sometimes the two words are the same. Sometimes they have one sound that is different. Listen once only to each item and tick the S (same) column or the D (different) column. If you are not sure, tick the question mark (?) column.

S

D

2

EXAMPLE If you hear, ‘sheep sheep’ tick the S column.

If you hear, ‘sheep ship’ tick the D column.

If you are not sure, tick the? column.

S

D

2

S

D

2

S

D

2

S

D

2

La

6a

12a

17a

Ib

6b

12b

17b

2a

7a

13a

18a

2b

7b

13b

18b

2c

7c

14a

19a

За

8a

14b

19b

3b

8b

14c

20a

4a

9a

14d

21a

4b

9b

15a

22a

5a

IOa

15b

22b

5b

IOb

16a

23a

5c

Ila

16b

23b

Ilb

16c

24a

Section 2 Intonation

Аз Do not stop the recording or repeat. Listen to Lucy talking to Lesley on the telephone. In some items her voice goes up ( ) at the end. In some

Items her voice goes down ( ). Tick the or Columnforeach

?

Item. If you are not sure, tick the? column. Listen to the example first.

Л

EXAMPLE a) That’s Lesley, isn’t it?

B) That’s Lesley, isn’t it?

?

?

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10

Section 3 Word stress

A4 Do not stop the recording or repeat. In each item, tick the one word that is different from the others.

EXAMPLE items column number alone ∕ listen

1 nowhere birthday mistake toilet postcard

2 guitar eighteen today machine English

3 away brother breakfast frightened valley

4 comfortable vegetables photograph lemonade minimal

5 telephoning supermarket conversation exercises helicopter

TEST B

(Note: This test requires the help of a teacher, native speaker, or near­native speaker of English.)

Ask the student to read each test item, and record the grading on the result sheet (page xii).

A student’s performance can be recorded, or the student can be asked to repeat an item as many times as necessary to record a result. The reasons for mispronunciation are many, and some may be caused by reading difficulty. To check this, say the mispronounced word correctly and ask the student to repeat it. If the student can then say it correctly, add the symbol R to your grading on that item, indicating that the student can pronounce this sound but may have difficulty when reading it.

suggested symbols for grading: ∕ x r no difficulty with this sound
difficulty with this sound
may have difficulty reading this sound

Shopping list

1 some cheese (cheap cheese); some tea (Chinese tea)

2 fifty biscuits; four fish

3 ten eggs (big eggs)

4 jam; apples and oranges; a cabbage

5 ten tomatoes (large tomatoes)

6 five kilos of veal (very good veal)

7 some strong string (long string)

8 four forks (small forks); spoons; cups; small paper plates

9 some good sugar; milk; coffee; a cake

10 pick up Jude’s blue shoes at the shoe shop; two kilos of brown rice; a grapefruit

11 nuts; honey; half a dozen hot buns

12 one lemon; nine brown onions; flowers for the house

13 some paper for my mother’s letters; collect Grandfather’s leather jacket from the cleaner’s

14 a girl’s shirt and skirt (size thirteen); cold drinks (don’t get dry ginger); some good bread

15 eight small cakes and paper plates; some sausages for supper

16 some yellow roses for your sister

17 white wine (sweet wine); some ice

18 beer for Bob (buy it from the pub near here)

19 some shampoo for Claire’s hair; some pears

20 some tins of New Zealand peas, or frozen beans

21 fresh English fish from the fish shop

22 a toy for the little boy (a blue or yellow ball)

23 something for Mr Smith (it’s his birthday on Thursday)

24 a small cheap television for the garage

RESULTS SHEETAND FINDINGS from List of likely errors

In any of the three columns, place a cross against the sound where there may be difficulty.

SOUNDS

Pnge

(Diagnostic Test B)

Diagnostic Test Λ

Findings from

List of likely errors

1 /i:/ (sheep)

3

La

∕t∫∕ (chip)

120

Ib

2 ∕ι∕ (ship)

7

2a

∕f∕ (fan)

131

2b, 2c

3 ∕e∕ (pen)

11

За

∕g∕ (girl)

101

3b

4 ∕se∕ (man)

15

4a

∕d3∕ (jam)

124

4b

5 ∕α∑∕ (heart)

23

5a, 5b

∕t∕ (table)

89

5c

6 ∕v∕ (van)

135

6a, 6b

7 ∕d∕ (clock)

29

7a

∕rj∕ (ring)

168

7b, 7c

8 /0:/ (ball)

174

8a

∕p∕ (pen)

81

8b

9 ∕υ∕ (book)

36

9a

∕k√ (key)

97

9b

10 /u:/ (boot)

39

IOa

∕r∕ (rain)

176

IOb

11 ∕λ∕ (cup)

19

Ila

∕h∕ (hat)

147

Ilb

12 ∕n∕ (nose)

165

12a

∕au∕ (house)

63

12b

13 /э/ (camera)

48

13a

/3/ (the feather)

155

13b

14 /з:/ (girl)

43

14a, 14b, 14c

∕d∕ (door)

93

14d

15 ∕eι∕ (male)

54

15a

∕s∕ (sun)

107

15b

16 /эи/ (phone)

66

16a, 16b

∕j∕ (yellow)

143

16c

17 ∕aι∕ (fine)

57

17a

∕w∕ (window)

139

17b

18 Лэ/ (year)

70

18a

∕b∕ (baby)

85

18b

19 /еэ/ (chair)

73

19a

∕m∕ (mouth)

162

19b

20 ∕z∕ (zoo)

110

20a

21 ∕J7 (shoe)

114

21a

22 /01/ (boy)

60

22a

/1/ (letter)

172

22b

23 ∕θ∕(thin)

151

23a, 23b

24 /3/ (television)

117

24a

Section A Vowels

Making English sounds

Short vowels (make a short sound) ∕ι∕ (ship)

∕e∕ (pen)

∕υ∕ (book)

∕ae∕ (man)

∕λ∕ (cup)

use your voice to make all vowels.∕n∕ (clock)

/э/ (camera)

Long vowels (make a long sound) /o:/ (ball)

/u:/ (boot)

∕iι∕ (sheep)

/α:/ (heart)

∕3∑∕ (ghl)

Diphthongs

(two vowel sounds) /эи/ (phone)

∕ιa∕ (year)

∕oι∕ (boy)

∕au∕ (house)

∕eι∕ (male)

∕aι∕ (fine)

/еэ/ (chair)

1 Spot the different sound.

EXAMPLE ∕3∕∕e∕∕υ∕∕ea∕∕ι∕

Answer: The fourth sound is a diphthong. All the others are short vowels.

1 /эо/ ∕υ∕ ∕√ /э/ /о/ 2 ∕oι∕ ∕e∕ Лэ/ ∕aι∕ ∕au∕ 3 /d/ ∕iι∕ /э:/ ∕α∑∕ /з:/

2 Match these words with the pictures below, a the back of the tongue

B the lips

C the tip of the tongue d Ihefrontofthetongue

i
sr-
i-Λ≥

3 Match the pictures (1-9) in A with the instructions (a-i) in B. A

2 3

B

A) Openyourmouth.

B) Closeyourmouth.

C) Putyourtongueforward.

D) Open your mouth a little. Then open mouth a little more.

E) Putyourtongueback.

F) Put your tongue down.

G) Putyourtongueup.

H) Put your tongue forward and up. Practise /i:/: eat, easy, he, she, we.

I) Put your tongue down and back. Practise /α:/: ask, are, arm, car.

/i:/ sheep

— Do you like your tea sweet?

— Yes. Three sugars, please.

Target sound /i:/

Аз Open your mouth very little to make

The target sound i:. /i:/ is a long sound. Listen and repeat: Liι∕.

Sound /i:/

Sheep

Look out for that sheep.

Cheeks

What lovely cheeks!

Leak

Stop it leaking!

Peel

This peeΓs got vitamin C in it.

Bean

Throw out that bean.

Leave

He’s going to leave.

Sound /i:/ words

A6 a Listen and repeat the words.

Sound ∕iι∕ sentences

A7 b Listen to the sentences. at c Sentence stress

Notice that the most important words for the meaning of a sentence are pronounced more LOUDly and s 1 о w Iy.

The less important words are said more quietly and quiddy Listen to the sentences again and this time look at the Underlined Syllables below. Notice that they are louder and slower.

Look Out for that Sheep. Stop it LeakIng!

What LoveLy Cheeks! This Peel’s got vitamin C in it.

Throw Out that Bean. He’s going to Leave.

A7 d Listen again and repeat the sentences.

Dialogue

A First practise the sound ∕i∑∕ in some of the words from this unit. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

One-syllable words: cheese beef tea eat meal three cheap please me

Two-syllable words: Peter people Edam evening Eastfield biscuit cheesecake

(The stress is always on the first syllable.)

Two-syllable words: Janine repeat (The stress is always on the second syllable.)

Note on word stress: bold is used here to show you which part of the word is strongly stressed, i. e. which syllable is pronounced more LOUDly and s 1 о w Iy than the other(s). Word stress doesn’t usually change, except in some longer words with stress near the end. (See 4c and 4d.)

A8 B Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-10) with the correct words from the box.

Cheese Peter eat please tea beef three me teas beef

In a cafe: ‘It’s cheaper to eat at Marguerite’s’

CHRISTINA: What would you like to eat, ι__________ ? The cheese sandwiches are

The cheapest.

PETER: Er… mmm… oh, a 2_______ sandwich, please, Christina.

CHRISTINA: Cheese… mmm… Janine? Would you like a 3___________ sandwich or a

Cheese sandwich?

JANINE: A cheese sandwich, 4_________ ..

PETER: What about you, Christina? Would you like cheese or 5________ ?

WAITRESS: Are you all ready to order? What would you like to 6___________ ?

CHRISTINA: Er, we’ll have one beef sandwich, two cheese sandwiches and, mmm,

7________ for me.

JANINE: Tea for 8_______ too, please.

PETER: Yes, make that three 9________ , please.

WAITRESS: (writing down the order) One beef sandwich, two cheese sandwiches and io teas.

Ай c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers. Practise reading the dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation of questions with ‘or’

Intonation is the voice going up or down.

This movement up or down begins on the most important word in a phrase or sentence.

In questions with ‘or’ the intonation usually goes down at the end.

Λ9 a Listen and repeat.

Would you like Veal or Beef?

Would you like Coffee or Tea?

Would you like Coffee, Tea or milk?

φ b Role play

Use the menu to practise a conversation in a group of four or five. You are in a restaurant. Take turns to be the waiter. Ask each other questions, e. g. Would you like… or…? Then one person gives the order to the waiter, who repeats the order to check it. If possible, also practise using other menus. If it is an expensive restaurant, the waiter or waitress can be more formal, saying Good evening before asking for the order.

S

И

1

EΛSTFIELD RESTAURANT

I

R:

MENU

Soup

Leek soup or pea soup

A

A

Meat

Veal or beef

Vegetables Beans or peas

I

A

Fe

Sweets

L

Э

:■

Cheesecake or ice cream or peaches

S

.-

7.

Drinks

÷

Coffee or tea

1

3

Biscuits and Cheese

Edam cheese or Brie

Z

:

L-

3

5

Aio c Word stress — nationalities ending in ‘ese’

As you listen to the sentences about these nationalities, draw a line connecting the country and nationality in the two lists below.

Countries Nationalities (Note the stress on the last syllable.)

China Vietnamese

Bali ∖ Maltese Malta ∖ Balinese Portugal ∖ Japanese Lebanon Chinese

Japan NepaIese

Nepal Lebanese

Vietnam Portuguese

Aii d Movingstress

The stress of these ‘ese’ nationalities changes if the next word is strongly stressed. So we say, This Beef is Tapanese but, It’s JapAnese Beef.

Listen and respond, like the example.

EXAMPLE Is this bread from Beirut?

Response: Yes, it’s LebAnese. It’s LebAnese Bread.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound /i:/.

unit 2,∕ι∕ ship

ς'^

v∕'⅛
‘1 Λ
,peel
this peel's got vitamin c in it.
2 minimal pairs
sound 1
ш /i:/
'¾c sheep
look out for that sheep.
,it,pill
this pill's got vitamin c in it.
sound 2
∕ι∕
ship
look out for that ship.
iick
stop it licking!
chicks
what lovely chicks.
leak
stop it leaking!
cheeks
what lovely cheeks.
s 
 bean bin ⅞⅛
 throw out that bean. throw out that bin. mlllff
<
 Λ
 leave live c⅛
 he's going to leave. he's going to live. -

— What about this fish? Can I eat it?

-Yes. Eatit.

— What about this cheese? Can I eat it?

— No, don’t eat it. It’s six weeks out of date.

1 Target sound ∕ι∕

Ai2a a First practise the sound ∕i∑∕

(see page 3). Listen and repeat.

Ai2b B Open your mouth a Little more to make the target sound ∕ι∕.

Listen and repeat.

Ai2c C Listen and repeat both sounds together, /i:/ is long, ∕ι∕ is short.

Minimal pair words

Λi3a a Listen and repeat the words.

Ai3b B You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For /i:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕ι∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 1, 2, 2, 2, 2

Minimal pair sentences

Aita c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Ai ib d Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for /i:/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕ι∕ (sound 2).

E Sentence stress

stressed syllables.) pairl: out ... ship pair 2: stop ... leak pair 3: love ... chicks pair 4: pill’s ... cThe most important words in a sentence are strongly stressed. They are pronounced LOUDer and slower. Look at these examples from the minimal pair sentences. (In the brackets on the right, the big circles are the strongly stressed syllables and the small circles are the weakly

Look OUT for that SHIP! (oOooO)

STOP it LEAKIng. (OoOo)

What LOVELy CHICKS! (oθoθ)

This PILL’S got vitamin C in it. (oθooooθoo)

a14aa15 fListen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the strongly stressed words in each sentence (on page 7).

Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) sheep

B) ship

2 a) bean

B) bin

3 a) cheeks

B) chicks I I

4 a) cheap

B) chip

5 a) heel

B) hill

6 a) peel

B) pill

Dialogue

I, a First practise the sound ∕ι∕ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

One-Syllablewords: film ill miss kids quick Kim Bill Two-Syllablewords: (Istsyllable) cricket tickets children

Minutes quickly listen pity (2nd syllable) begins

three-syllable words:(1st syllable) history festival cinema

olympic excited terrific gorillaInteresting prize-winning Africa

(2nd syllable) gymnastics beginning

(3rd syllable) chimpanzee

B Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read the dialogue and fill the gaps (1-8) with the correct three-syllable words from the list in За.

Three interesting films

BILL: Good evening, Mrs Lee.

GINA: Is Kim in?

BILL: Is he coming to the cinema, Mrs Lee? It’s the Children’s Film ι .

MRS LEE: Kim’s ill.

BILL: Here he is!

GINA: Hi, Kiml KIM: Hi, Ginal Hi, Bill!

BILL: Kim, we’ve got these three free tickets to see three 2__________ films for

Children!

MRS LEE: Listen, Kim…

KIM: Is it 3_________ ?

GINA: И/e think it is. First there’s a short film about gorillas and 4__________ in

Africa, and…

BILL: … then the next film is about the six best Olympic 5______________

Competitions, and then…

GINA: … then it’s the big film — The 6___________ Of English Cricket.

KIM: Cricket!

BILL: It’s a 7________ film.

MRSLEE: If you’re ilI, Kim..

GINA: It would be a pity to miss it.

MRS LEE: Now listen, you kids…

BILL: And it begins in fifty minutes.

MRS LEE: KIM!

KIM: Quick! Or we’ll miss the 8_________ of the gorilla film!

Λi6 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers. Practise reading the

Dialogue aloud, and record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

D Perform the dialogue in a group of four and, if possible, record your voices.

In your group, first practise speaking with feeling. Mrs Lee is getting more and more angry. The others are getting more and more excited.

In English, if you get more angry, you usually speak more loudly, if you get more excited, you usually speak more quickly.

4 Numbers

Ai7 a Word stress

Stressed syllables are in bold. Listen and repeat.

Three

Thirteen

Thirty

3

13

30

Four

Fourteen

Forty

4

14

40

Five

Fifteen

Fifty

5

15

50

Six

Sixteen

Sixty

6

16

60

Seven

Seventeen

Seventy

7

17

70

Eight

Eighteen

Eighty

8

18

80

Nine

Nineteen

Ninety

9

19

90

B Moving stress

The stress in these ‘teen’ numbers is different when we are counting, thirteen, fourteen, Fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, etc.

C Other moving stress

The stress in these ‘teen’ numbers is also different when there is a strong stress in the next word.

Tim lives at number fiFteen.

Tim lives at number fifteen Green Street.

Λia Practise giving A’s reply in the conversations you hear, like the example. Example

A: The DenTist is at seventeen Mill Street.

B: SevEnty?

A: No. not seventy — seventeen.

D Mini Bingo game

Play in a group of 3-5. One person calls out the numbers from 4a but in a random order. (Take turns to call the numbers.) The others each

Choose one of the boxes A, B, C or D below. Listen to the numbers and if a number is in your box, cover it with a small piece of paper. When all the numbers in your box are covered, you are the winner and you shout, BINGO!

B

C

D

13

3 80

60

4

16

5

15 16

60

6

15

7

19 50

40

30

13

70

90 3

8

14

17

17

90 8

70

5

90

40

7 18

9

90

80

Self study student: first make a recording, saying clearly all the numbers from 4a but in a random order. Then listen and play as many boxes as you can simultaneously.

5 Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕ι∕.

∕e∕ pen

Is this milk fresh?

— Yes. Everything in this fridge is fresh.

1 Target sound ∕e∕

Λi9a A First practise the sound ∕ι∕

(see page 7).

Ai9b b Open your mouth a Little more to make the short target sound ∕e∕. Listen and repeat.

chick
she wants a chick.
,cheque
she wants a cheque.
2 minimal pairs
sound 1
∕ι∕
pin
i need a pin.
bin
that's my bin.
tin
it's a big tin.
p’g
where's the pig?
bill
there's the bill.
sound 2
∕e∕
pen
i need a pen.
ben
that's my ben.
ten
it's a big ten.
peg
where's the peg?
bell
there's the bell.

Ai9c C Listen and repeat both sounds together: ∕ι∕ and ∕e∕.

Iinimal pair words

A2 )a a Listen and repeat the words.

A2f⅛ Ь You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word, write 1 For ∕ι∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕e∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLE Pair 1: 2, 2,1,1, 2

Minimal pair sentences

A2ia C Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

Λ2ibd Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕ι∕ (sound 1) or 2 for Id (sound 2).

Λ21aθa22 fSentence stress

The most important words in a sentence are strongly stressed. If the minimal pair sentences were spoken with only one strong stress, which word would it be? Read the sentences and guess which word it might be. Then listen to the minimal pair sentences again and Underline the strongly stressed word in each sentence (on page 11).

Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 b) pen □
b) peg □
b) tens □
b) set ∣ ∣
b) desk □
b) peck at o
A) pin □

2 a) pig □

3 a) tins □

4 a) sit □

5 a) disk O

6 3 dialogue
oa
A) pick at O

First practise the sound /e/ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise. In words with two or more syllables, bold is used to show which syllable is strongly stressed. In the brackets, write the number of syllables in each word before you practise.

EXAMPLES friend (1) terribly (3) Emma (2) expensive (3)

Jealous ( ) help ( ) everybody ( ) any ( ) bench ( ) Kevin ( )

America ( ) Mexican ( ) Emily ( ) Ben ( ) very ( ) bread ( ) Eddie ( ) Notice that many words in English have the strong stress on the first syllable, but some words have the strong stress on the last syllable.

Hello Adele again except yourself lemonade Λ23 b Listen to the dialogue, paying attention to the target sound. Then read

The dialogue and fill the gaps (1-7) with the correct questions (a-g) below.

A) Can I get you a drink, Adele?

B) Is that better?

C) Was it expensive?

D) Are you listening to the Red Hot ChiIi Peppers?

E) How did you spend your holiday, Adele?

F) Are you a friend of Emma’s?

G) Have you met my friend Adele yet, Kevin?

Z∏ends

ADELE:

Hi, Emma! Hi, Ben! Hello, Emily! Hello; Eddie! Hi, everybody!

EVERYBODY EXCEPT KEVIN:

Hi, Adele!

EMILY:

Nice to see you again, Adele. Kevin, this is Adele. Adele, this is Kevin.

ADELE:

Hi. Kevin, ι ? Ifs terriblv loud.

KEVIN:

Yes… {turns the music down) 2 ? {Adele

Nods her head) 3 ?

ADELE:

Yes.

KEVIN:

Emma said she had a friend called Adele.

EDDIE:

Help yourself to Mexican food, Adele. Ifs on the kitchen bench.

EMILY:

And there’s French bread on the shelf.

BEN:

4 ?

ADELE:

Yes, thanks, Ben. Some lemonade with a bit of ice in it.

EMMA:

5 1

KEVIN:

Yes. I’ve just met her. She’s very friendly.

BEN:

6 ?

ADELE:

I went to South America with my best friend Kerrie.

EVERYBODY:

Well!

EMMA:

We’re all jealous.

EDDIE:

7 ?

ADELE:

Not very. But I spent everything. I haven’t any money left.

Λ23 c Listen to the dialogue again to check your answers. Then practise reading the dialogue aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

4 Intonation

Intonation is the voice going up*or down on the strongest syllable of the most important word in a phrase or sentence.

Intonation statements usually goes dowt at the end.

Intonation in WH questions {Who? What? Why? When? Where? How?) Usually goes down at the end.

Intonation in Yes/No questions usually goes up∙at the end.

A24 a Listen and repeat.

WH question: How did you spend your holiday?

Statement: I Went to AMerIca.

YesINo question: Was it eXpenSive?

Statement: Yes. VerY.

No. Not VerY.

A25 b Word stress

Practise the word stress in these place names. In many place names the strong stress is on the first syllable.

Denmark Venice Edinburgh Mexico Mecca Melbourne Lebanon

A smaller number of place names have the strong stress on the last syllable.

Japan Mumbai Madrid Beirut NewYork

In longer place names the strong stress is sometimes in the middle of

The word.

The Riviera the Mediterranean Australia America Helsinki Philadelphia

C Now practise the conversation below, using the place names in 4b.

A: How did you spend your holiday?

B: I went to. .

A: Was it expensive?

B: Yes. Very. ∕ Not very.

D Dictionary work: word stress

When you meet a new word, you can check which syllable is strongly stressed in a good dictionary (e. g. CambridgeAdvanced Learner’s Dictionary). The pronunciation of the word is shown in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), with the symbol1 in front of the main strong stress of the word, e. g. electric ∕ιllektπk∕. Your dictionary will also show the secondary stress (usually in longer words) with the symbol l, e. g. electricity ∕ιllekltπs3ti∕.

In Ship or Sheep? only the main strong stress in a word is in bold to show you where the stressed syllable ends, e. g. electric, electricity.

Look up some of these words in a dictionary and mark which syllable has the main strong stress.

EXAMPLE eXcept or ex’cept

Except exercise expect expedition

Expel experiment expenditure expert

Expression extend extra extrovert

5 SpeHiiig

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕e∕.

∕ae∕ man

— Let’s have a chat about that cat.

— Mv cat?

— Yes… em… it’s too fat.

— Well, it is a bit fat. But it’s… mm… a very happy cat.

Arget sound ∕ae∕

V6a a First practise the sound ∕e∕

(see page 11). Listen and repeat, vβb b Open your mouth a little more to

Make the target sound ∕ae∕.

Listen and repeat.

Vase c Listen and repeat both sounds together: ∕e∕ and ∕ae∕.

2 minimal pairs

Sound 1

∕e∕

X

Put the Y here.

Sound 2

∕ae∕

Axe

Put the axe here.

Pen

Can I borrow a pen?

Men

Look at the men.

Pan

Can I borrow a pan?

Send

Γm sending the table.

Man

Look at the man.

Sand

Γm sanding the table.

Gem

It’s a lovely gem.

Bread

We had bread for lunch.

Jam

It’s a lovely jam.

Brad

We had Brad for lunch.

Minimal pair words

A2?a a Listen and repeat the words.

A27b b You will hear five words from each minimal pair. For each word write 1 For /e/ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕ae∕ (sound 2).

EXAMPLEPairl: 2, 2, 1, 1, 2

Minimal pair sentences

A28a c Listen to the minimal pair sentences.

A28b D Listen to six of the sentences and write 1 for ∕e∕ (sound 1) or 2 for ∕ae∕ (sound 2).

A2βa e Sentence stress

Listen to the first two minimal pair sentences again and look at the circles on the left. The big circles are the strongly stressed syllables, and the small circles are the weakly stressed syllables.

OoOO Put the ‘x’ here.∕Put the Axe herE, ooθooθ CanI BorrOw a Pen? I Can I BorrOw a Pan?

∖28a Listen to the rest of the sentences and Underline the sentence stress (the strongly stressed syllables in the most important words in the sentence). OooO LookatthemenJLookattheman.

Oθooθo Γm sending the table.∕Γm sanding the table.

Ooθoθ It’s a lovely gem./It’s a lovely jam.

Ooθoθ We had bread for lunch./We had Brad for lunch.

V>9 f Tick the words a) or b) that you hear in the sentences.

1 a) pen

B) pan

2 a) men

B) man

3 a) end

B) and

4 a) feta

B) fatter

5 a) pet

B) pat

6 a) bed

B) bad

1 Dialogue

A First practise the sound ∕ae∕ in some of the words from the dialogue. Read the words aloud or visit the website to practise.

1 Allen salad habit travel Janet absent sandwich contracts cancelled

2 animals Africa antelope Annabelle Anthony passengers anchovy

3 alligator advertising

Which of the list of words (1, 2, 3) above have the word stress patterns below? The big circles are the strongly stressed syllables and the small circles are the weakly stressed syllables.

A) Ooo b) Oooo c) Oo

Match the sentences (1-3) below with the sentence stress patterns (a-c). The big circles are the strongly stressed words and the small circles are the weakly stressed words.

1 He hasn’t done the backup. a) ooθooθ

2 Aaron doesn’t have to come back, b) oθoooθo

3 The computer has crashed. c) OoooOooO

B Aaron’s recorded messages

‘O Listen to the recorded messages, paying attention to the target sound. Now listen again and complete the sentences below. Each missing word has the sound ∕εe∕. Number 1 has been done as an example.

1 Aaron works at the Ainx Travel Agency.

2 He’s on holiday in______ .

3 His boss is Mrs_____ .

4 Aaron left an

And

On his desk.

5 He

To contact Anthonv about the of

He

On

6 Aaron has a_______ habit of being_______ from work.

7 Aaron booked a______ to San________ with three_________ : an

Anteater, an________ , and an________ .

8 The computer has______ and Aaron hadn’t done the_________ up

For the_______ programmes. Mrs Allen is very_________ .

9 The best advertising_______ have been________ because of Aaron’s

Bad_______ .

10 Aaron doesn’t______ to come________ to the________ agency

Because he’s been_______ .

A3i Listen to the complete sentences and check your answers then practise reading the sentences aloud. Record your voice to compare your production of the target sound with the recording.

A32 a Practise first with the names Annabelle and Janet. Notice how the important words are strongly stressed — we say them LOUDer and s 1 о w er. Listen and repeat.

Question: How do you ShorTen AnnAbelle and Janet?

Answer: Ann and Tan.

Listen to seven possible answers to the next question (see page 18).

Λ33 Notice that when we add more weakly stressed words or syllables to

These sentences, we still say them in about the same length of time. We do this by saying all the weakly stressed words more quickly and quietly. Question: Who works with Aaron?

Answers:

1 OO Ann. Tan.

2 OoO Ann and Jan.

3 OoooOo AnnAbelle and Tanet.

4 oθooooθo There’s AnnAbelle and there’s Tanet.

5 ooOoooooOo Well there’s AnnAhelle and then there’s Tanet.

6 oooθoooooooθo Well first there’s AnnAbelle and then there’s

Also Ianet.

7 oooooθoooooooooθo Well first of all there’s AnnAbelle and then you

Know there’s also Ianet.

(Note that although sometimes native speakers of English do speak like this with a lot of weakly stressed words, at other times they may use more strongly stressed words, e. g. ‘Well, first of All there’s AnnAbelle and Then you Know there’s also Ianet.’ Both are correct. Both have the same rhythm of strong and weak stress.)

A34 B Listen to the seven answers in 4a again and try to say them all in the same length of time. Try a few times. First practise putting your energy into the strongly stressed words. Next practise saying the weakly stressed words with less energy, so that you say them more quietly. Then practise saying the weakly stressed words more and more quickly. Record your voice and compare this with the recording.

C Match the questions (1-3) with the pairs of answers (a-с) below. (In the brackets, the big circles are the strongly stressed syllables and the small circles are the weakly stressed syllables.)

Questions:

1 What kind of animals did Aaron Book on the San Salvador flight?

2 What were Two of the misTakes Aaron Made before he went on holiday?

3 Who Else works at the travel agency?

Answers:

A) Anthony, Mrs Allen. (Ooo, ooOo)

Well, there’s Anthony, and then there’s Mrs Alien, (ooθoo, oooooOo)

B) An anteater. an antelope, and an alligator, (oθoo, oθoo, ooOooo)

He booked an AntEater. as well as an antelope, and also an alligator. (oooOoo, ooooθoo, ooooθooo)

C) The Map, the BackUp, (oθ, oθo)

He lost the Map, and he didn’t do the BackUp, (oooθ, ooooooθo)

Practise reading the questions and answers aloud. Try to say the pairs of answers in the same length of time.

Spelling

Look back over this unit at words with the target sound, and write what you noticed about how to spell the sound ∕ae∕.

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